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Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia

Rebuan H.M.A.,Darul Iman University, Malaysia | Ali E.,Hospital Sultanah Nur Zahirah | Aziz M.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Mohamad N.,Innovation and Research | Haque M.,FPSK
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science | Year: 2013

Conventional MRI and MRI-myelography studies were classified as positive when morphological alterations noted correlated with clinical presentations. This study was to analyse the usefulness of MRI myelography of the cervical spine using technique of moderate T2-weighted Three Dimensional Turbo Spin Echo-Fat Sequence pulse sequence in identifying nerve root compression in patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy. MRI myelogram detected less nerve root compression 5% but conventional MRI 8%. Clinical findings were significantly associated with imaging findings in both imaging techniques (p<0.001). MRI myelogram overreported 45 and conventional MRI over-reported 80 nerve roots compression when correlated with clinical presentation (p<0.001). There was 50% alteration on conventional MRI when viewed together with MRI myelogram. There was significant difference with nerve root compression and clinical findings between MRI myelogram and conventional MRI (p<0.001). MRI myelogram underestimated the number of nerve roots compressed but it altered the interpretation of conventional MRI in 5% cases when viewed together. The addition of MRI myelogram increased the number of positive nerve roots. MRI myelogram is a useful adjunct to conventional axial and sagittal imaging in the investigation of cervical spondylotic radiculopathy. © 2013 Husbani Mohd Amin Rebuan et al.

Abubakar A.R.,Darul Iman University, Malaysia | Simbak N.B.,FPSK | Haque M.,Unit of Pharmacology
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology | Year: 2014

Several factors predispose patient to develop adverse drug reactions (ADRs), some of these factors are drug related, patient related, disease related, social and adverse drug related. The contributions of these factors to development of ADRs are very crucial and are well documented in medical literature. It has become necessary for every medical practitioner to consider these factors in order to prescribe the best medication to his patients. The current classification of ADRs is only based on drug known pharmacology and dose dependent of its action. In order to give comprehensive classification, the time course of its appearance and its severity as well as patient susceptibility are taken into consideration. Knowledge of causality assessment enables the medical practitioners to clarify the likelihood that the suspected adverse drug reaction is actually due to the medicine. This requires careful patient monitoring because adverse drug reaction can be difficult and a times impossible to distinguish from patient disease condition. The purpose of this article is to review the factors affecting the development of ADRs, its broader classification and to assess causal relationship between the suspected drug and appearance of ADRs. © RJPT All right reserved.

Bakhori S.,University of Kuala Lumpur | Hassan M.Z.,University of Kuala Lumpur | Daud Y.,University of Kuala Lumpur | Sarip S.,University of Kuala Lumpur | And 3 more authors.
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2015

This study presents the response of kenaf/epoxy corrugated sandwich structure during quasi-static test. Force-displacements curves have been deducted to determine the deformation pattern and collapse behavior of the structure. Kenaf/epoxy sandwich structures skins fabricated by using hand layup technique and the corrugated core were moulded by using steel mould. Different thicknesses of corrugated core web with two sizes of kenaf fibers were used. The corrugated core is then bonded with the skins by using poly-epoxy resin and has been cut into different number of cells. The specimens then tested under tensile and compression at different constant speeds until the specimens fully crushed. Tensile tests data showed the structure can be considered brittle when it breaking point strain, e less than 0.025. In compression test, the specimens fail due to dominated by stress concentration that initiated by prior cracks. Also, the specimens with more number of cells and thicker core web have higher strength and the ability to absorb higher energy.

Yau A.,Darul Iman University, Malaysia | Simbak N.B.,FPSK | Haque M.,Unit of Pharmacology
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology | Year: 2014

Pharmacogenovigilance is a program which can be developed by integrating pharmacogenomics into a pharmacovigilance studies. The fact that genes play a vital role in variability in response to medicines makes pharmacogenomic of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) very essential program. Genetic variations have significantly affected the drug action in many patients, and a time predisposes patient to uncommon ADRs that are not seen in other patients. Pharmacogenetics provides greener path to individualized use of medicines, drug safety and efficacy studies due to genetic polymorphism. In order to explore these potential benefits, integration of pharmacogenovigilance in to clinical practice and public health system has become necessary. It is imperative for every medical practitioner to consider genetic factors in order to prescribe the best medication to his patients. Literature search using terms genetic biomarkers, application of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics, and influence of pharmacogenetics on pharmacovigilance was done using PubMed, PhamaKG, US FDA and WHO websites. Several challenges facing drug safety and pharmacovigilance were highlighted and proposed pharmacogenomics approaches in solving them. The purpose of this article is to justify pharmacogenovigilance as an essential tool for drug safety and efficacy while providing the most feasible way for its successful integration in to the cycle of patients care. In conclusion, considerable progresses have been recorded on the potentials of pharmacogenovigilance in drug safety and efficacy study during post-marketing surveillance, and based on the provided evidences, the right time for pharmacogenovigilance is now. © RJPT All right reserved.

Muda T.F.M.T.,Darul Iman University, Malaysia | Ismail Z.I.M.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Abdullah S.,Kuala Terengganu Specialist Hospital | Simbak N.B.,FPSK | Haque M.,FPSK
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology | Year: 2014

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a global significant health-delinquent. Inflammatory changes signify a clear indication in the early pathological changes of the airway in this disease and cigarette smoking is the most common risk factor. The ultimate goal in COPD is prevention. Recently, honey has been shown to have significant therapeutic possessions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of honey on the inflammatory process in small airways of rats exposed to cigarette smoke. Twenty-three male rats between 8-9 weeks old were randomly divided into 3 groups. The first group was exposed daily to cigarette smoke alone using smoking apparatus. The second group was exposed to smoke and given oral honey at 1.2gm/kg body weight daily and the third group was assigned as control. The rats were sacrificed after four weeks of exposure and the lung tissues were processed accordingly. The sections were immunohistochemical stained with anti-CD68 and anti-CD8 for macrophages and CD8+ T lymphocytes counts. There was a significant reduction in the number of macrophages in the group exposed to cigarette smoke with honey compared to smoke exposure alone (z=-2.52, p= 0.012). However there was no significant reduction in the number of CD8+ T lymphocytes counts between the two groups (z=-0.40, p=0.690). Current study found honey has a prospective effect in reducing the macrophage recruitment in airways following inflammatory response due to cigarette smoke inhalations. © RJPT All right reserved.

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