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Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia
Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia
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Yau A.,Darul Iman University, Malaysia | Aziz A.B.A.,FPSK
Journal of Young Pharmacists | Year: 2015

Background: Pharmacists are furnished with expert drug knowledge and have been considered as valuable resource of drug information, therefore, are well positioned to play a leading role in the application of pharmacogenomics (PG) in to clinical practice. This might prevent Chemotherapy related adverse events and improve patient outcomes, despite the ethical, privacy concerns and potential implications of lifelong genetic-data. Methods: This review is to evaluate and digest the various studies on Knowledge, Attitudes and Practice concerning pharmacogenomics among pharmacists and to suggest future research areas. 13 English published studies from 2004 to 2014 were selected. Studies involving Pharmacists of different area of practice and covering research from different continents were selected. Only studies on attitudes, knowledge and practice concerning pharmacogenetics among pharmacists from 2004 to 2014, and research articles published in English were selected. Non-research articles, studies done on general public; studies conducted among other healthcare professionals; studies on genetics of diseases or toxicogenetics were excluded. Results: Knowledge and practice regarding pharmacogenetics among pharmacists were poor despite good attitudes. There was knowledge advancement from 38% in 2005 to more than 50% 2013 in some countries. Some barriers to adoption of pharmacogenomics into patient care and interventional recommendations were highlighted. Conclusion: there is an urgent call for additional training of Pharmacogenomics among pharmacists and to incorporate pharmacogenomics into curriculum of pharmacy schools. Pharmacists and future pharmacists should be trained on how to critically evaluate the use, efficacy, and safety of available pharmacogenetic testing.


Abubakar A.R.,Darul Iman University, Malaysia | Simbak N.B.,FPSK | Haque M.,Unit of Pharmacology
Journal of Young Pharmacists | Year: 2015

The primary aim of patient care is to provide the best medication that can produce the best treatment with minimal or no harm. This is only possible when the entire health care workers play their card well through correct prescription, dispensing, drug administration and adequate patient monitoring. However, the outcome is not always favorable because of the limited time undergone by the drug during premarketing studies as well as the bias by the pharmaceutical-industries to get approval from regulatory-agencies. As a result of this many safety data and information are lacking. Therefore, in order to preserve patient confidence and integrity of pharmaceutical products, post-marketing surveillance has become necessary. The methods commonly used in post-marketing surveillance include spontaneous reporting, data mining and active reporting which have meaningfully contributed to patient safety. Despite the improvement made, spontaneous reporting have some disadvantages such as underreporting, poor quality of reports, and cannot be used to determine risk rate. Pharmaceutical companies as owners of the drug have noteworthy role to play in adverse drug reactions monitoring and can adopt similar techniques used by the regulatory-agencies and academic research. Unfortunately, this has led to reporting bias. This has suggested the need for more awareness and educational intervention for health care professionals at all levels. The curriculum of training medical and health related students should be incorporated with PV programme. This appraisal has described how to identify adverse drug reactions and methods used in reporting, current developments in pharmacovigilance and role of pharmaceutical-industries in drug safety studies.


Salam A.,National University of Malaysia | Haque M.,Darul Iman University, Malaysia | Islam Z.,Eastern Medical College EMC | Mazid Helali A.,Gonoshashthaya Samajvittik Medical College GSSVMC | And 4 more authors.
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2013

Objectives: Medical professionalism forms the bridge between doctors and society. Conserving and maintaining professionalism is obligatory for physicians' curriculum. The objective of this study was to scrutinize and compare the professionalism of future medical professionals among different medical institutes. Methodology: It was a cross-sectional study conducted on 332 Year-III and Year-IV MBBS students of session 2012-2013 from three private medical colleges in Bangladesh. Data was collected using a mixed validated instrument containing items under fundamental elements of professionalism, measured by 5-points Likert scale giving a maximum score of 220. Results: Among 332 respondents, 44% were male, 56% female; Year-III respondents constituted 51% and Year-IV constituted 49%. Mean professionalism scores for male and female were 176.21 and 175.33, while for Year-III and Year-IV were 174.96 and 176.50 respectively. No significant differences observed between gender and year of study. However, significant differences were noticed between Year-IV male students among three medical colleges. Majority (83%) students were imprecise of professionalism. Conclusions: Lack of focus is a worry for professionalism. Educators should focus on fundamental elements of professionalism.


Rebuan H.M.A.,Darul Iman University, Malaysia | Ali E.,Hospital Sultanah Nur Zahirah | Aziz M.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Mohamad N.,Innovation and Research | Haque M.,FPSK
Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science | Year: 2013

Conventional MRI and MRI-myelography studies were classified as positive when morphological alterations noted correlated with clinical presentations. This study was to analyse the usefulness of MRI myelography of the cervical spine using technique of moderate T2-weighted Three Dimensional Turbo Spin Echo-Fat Sequence pulse sequence in identifying nerve root compression in patients with cervical spondylotic radiculopathy. MRI myelogram detected less nerve root compression 5% but conventional MRI 8%. Clinical findings were significantly associated with imaging findings in both imaging techniques (p<0.001). MRI myelogram overreported 45 and conventional MRI over-reported 80 nerve roots compression when correlated with clinical presentation (p<0.001). There was 50% alteration on conventional MRI when viewed together with MRI myelogram. There was significant difference with nerve root compression and clinical findings between MRI myelogram and conventional MRI (p<0.001). MRI myelogram underestimated the number of nerve roots compressed but it altered the interpretation of conventional MRI in 5% cases when viewed together. The addition of MRI myelogram increased the number of positive nerve roots. MRI myelogram is a useful adjunct to conventional axial and sagittal imaging in the investigation of cervical spondylotic radiculopathy. © 2013 Husbani Mohd Amin Rebuan et al.


Muda T.F.M.T.,Darul Iman University, Malaysia | Ismail Z.I.M.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Abdullah S.,Kuala Terengganu Specialist Hospital | Simbak N.B.,FPSK | Haque M.,FPSK
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology | Year: 2014

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a global significant health-delinquent. Inflammatory changes signify a clear indication in the early pathological changes of the airway in this disease and cigarette smoking is the most common risk factor. The ultimate goal in COPD is prevention. Recently, honey has been shown to have significant therapeutic possessions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of honey on the inflammatory process in small airways of rats exposed to cigarette smoke. Twenty-three male rats between 8-9 weeks old were randomly divided into 3 groups. The first group was exposed daily to cigarette smoke alone using smoking apparatus. The second group was exposed to smoke and given oral honey at 1.2gm/kg body weight daily and the third group was assigned as control. The rats were sacrificed after four weeks of exposure and the lung tissues were processed accordingly. The sections were immunohistochemical stained with anti-CD68 and anti-CD8 for macrophages and CD8+ T lymphocytes counts. There was a significant reduction in the number of macrophages in the group exposed to cigarette smoke with honey compared to smoke exposure alone (z=-2.52, p= 0.012). However there was no significant reduction in the number of CD8+ T lymphocytes counts between the two groups (z=-0.40, p=0.690). Current study found honey has a prospective effect in reducing the macrophage recruitment in airways following inflammatory response due to cigarette smoke inhalations. © RJPT All right reserved.


Abubakar A.R.,Darul Iman University, Malaysia | Simbak N.B.,FPSK | Haque M.,Unit of Pharmacology
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology | Year: 2014

Several factors predispose patient to develop adverse drug reactions (ADRs), some of these factors are drug related, patient related, disease related, social and adverse drug related. The contributions of these factors to development of ADRs are very crucial and are well documented in medical literature. It has become necessary for every medical practitioner to consider these factors in order to prescribe the best medication to his patients. The current classification of ADRs is only based on drug known pharmacology and dose dependent of its action. In order to give comprehensive classification, the time course of its appearance and its severity as well as patient susceptibility are taken into consideration. Knowledge of causality assessment enables the medical practitioners to clarify the likelihood that the suspected adverse drug reaction is actually due to the medicine. This requires careful patient monitoring because adverse drug reaction can be difficult and a times impossible to distinguish from patient disease condition. The purpose of this article is to review the factors affecting the development of ADRs, its broader classification and to assess causal relationship between the suspected drug and appearance of ADRs. © RJPT All right reserved.


Dzaraly N.D.,Darul Iman University, Malaysia | Simbak N.B.,UniSZA | Wahab S.A.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | Osman O.,Universiti Sains Malaysia | And 2 more authors.
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology | Year: 2014

Introduction: Hajj is the largest annual gatherings in Islamic world. Hajj pilgrims encounter a great deal of tough physical and mental stress. Overcrowding, extreme temperatures and electrolytes imbalance is common among pilgrims. These factors trigger the increased risk for communicable and non-communicable disease. Objective: The main objective of this study was to determine the patterns of common health problems (CHPs) encountered by pilgrims. Methods: CINAHL, EBSCO Host, PubMed, Google Scholar and Science Direct databases were used to search for articles related to the CHPs faced by the pilgrims which were published from 1998 to 2013. Eligible articles included non-experimental, experimental studies and case reports. The patterns and types of illness among pilgrims have been explored from limited intervention based articles. Only 27 studies were included encompassing with 17, 753 respondents out of 500 articles. Results: The analysis revealed that respiratory diseases (76.2%) were the leading health problems among Hajj-pilgrims followed by skin disease (7.4%), meningococcal disease (3.7%) and heat stroke (3.7%). Conclusion: Respiratory diseases are the most common health problems encountered by Hajj-pilgrims in which influenza gave the highest percentage. However, a definitive conclusion could not be drawn due to lack of existing studies related to this area. The existing evidence was insufficient to support the patterns of illness during mass gathering. Therefore, more studies are advocated to report the incidence of respiratory disease among Hajjpilgrims. © RJPT All right reserved.


Bakhori S.,University of Kuala Lumpur | Hassan M.Z.,University of Kuala Lumpur | Daud Y.,University of Kuala Lumpur | Sarip S.,University of Kuala Lumpur | And 3 more authors.
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2015

This study presents the response of kenaf/epoxy corrugated sandwich structure during quasi-static test. Force-displacements curves have been deducted to determine the deformation pattern and collapse behavior of the structure. Kenaf/epoxy sandwich structures skins fabricated by using hand layup technique and the corrugated core were moulded by using steel mould. Different thicknesses of corrugated core web with two sizes of kenaf fibers were used. The corrugated core is then bonded with the skins by using poly-epoxy resin and has been cut into different number of cells. The specimens then tested under tensile and compression at different constant speeds until the specimens fully crushed. Tensile tests data showed the structure can be considered brittle when it breaking point strain, e less than 0.025. In compression test, the specimens fail due to dominated by stress concentration that initiated by prior cracks. Also, the specimens with more number of cells and thicker core web have higher strength and the ability to absorb higher energy.


Yau A.,Darul Iman University, Malaysia | Simbak N.B.,FPSK | Haque M.,Unit of Pharmacology
Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology | Year: 2014

Pharmacogenovigilance is a program which can be developed by integrating pharmacogenomics into a pharmacovigilance studies. The fact that genes play a vital role in variability in response to medicines makes pharmacogenomic of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) very essential program. Genetic variations have significantly affected the drug action in many patients, and a time predisposes patient to uncommon ADRs that are not seen in other patients. Pharmacogenetics provides greener path to individualized use of medicines, drug safety and efficacy studies due to genetic polymorphism. In order to explore these potential benefits, integration of pharmacogenovigilance in to clinical practice and public health system has become necessary. It is imperative for every medical practitioner to consider genetic factors in order to prescribe the best medication to his patients. Literature search using terms genetic biomarkers, application of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics, and influence of pharmacogenetics on pharmacovigilance was done using PubMed, PhamaKG, US FDA and WHO websites. Several challenges facing drug safety and pharmacovigilance were highlighted and proposed pharmacogenomics approaches in solving them. The purpose of this article is to justify pharmacogenovigilance as an essential tool for drug safety and efficacy while providing the most feasible way for its successful integration in to the cycle of patients care. In conclusion, considerable progresses have been recorded on the potentials of pharmacogenovigilance in drug safety and efficacy study during post-marketing surveillance, and based on the provided evidences, the right time for pharmacogenovigilance is now. © RJPT All right reserved.


Yesmin F.,Gonoshashthaya Samajvittik Medical College GSSVMC | Rahman Z.,Enam Medical College and Hospital | Dewan J.F.,Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University | Helali A.M.,GSSVMC | And 5 more authors.
Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research | Year: 2013

Objective: Liver disease is associated with the formation of oxygen derived free radicals. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) as well as nitrogen species are responsible for nuclear DNA fragmentation and cell death. The active principle of thymoquinone (TQ) of Nigella sativa acts as a scavenger of superoxide anion. The current study was conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of Nigella sativa on rats. Methods: The study was carried out at prime postgraduate medical University of Bangladesh. Liver damage and oxidative stress were evaluated by measuring serum alanine amino transferase (ALT), hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA) and hepatic Glutathione (GSH) levels. Aqueous extract of Nigella sativa and n-hexane extract of Nigella sativa were administered orally into two groups of rat through intra-gastric tube for 28 days. Both the groups received paracetamol intra-peritoneally on day 28th and were sacrificed on day 30th. Subsequently, the following parameters were studied: Serum ALT, hepatic MDA, and hepatic GSH. Results: Hepatic damage was evaluated by significant increases in serum ALT (p<0.001) and hepatic MDA (p<0.001) concentration with depleted hepatic GSH (p<0.001) in paracetamol treated group. Pre-treated with aqueous extract of Nigella sativa significantly reduced serum ALT (p<0.001) and hepatic MDA (p<0.001) levels and also significantly associated with the increase in hepatic GSH (p<0.01). Pretreatment with n-hexane extracts of Nigella sativa decreased serum ALT (p<0.001), hepatic MDA (p<0.001) and increased hepatic GSH (p<0.001). Conclusion: Hepatoprotective properties of Nigella sativa in liver damage of experimental rats by reducing oxidative stress are evident. The protection afforded by the n-hexane extract of Nigella Sativa in pre-treated group has also been validated.

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