FPInnovations Paprican Division

Pointe-Claire, Canada

FPInnovations Paprican Division

Pointe-Claire, Canada
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van den Heuvel M.R.,University of Prince Edward Island | Martel P.H.,FPInnovations Paprican Division | Kovacs T.G.,FPInnovations Paprican Division | Maclatchy D.L.,Wilfrid Laurier University | And 7 more authors.
Water Quality Research Journal of Canada | Year: 2010

Under the Canadian Environmental Effects Monitoring (EEM) program for pulp and paper effluents, the observation of a national response pattern of decreased gonad size and increased fish condition and liver size has triggered a centralized multiagency investigation of cause (IOC) of reproductive impacts in fishes. The purpose of the component of the IOC study presented here is to compare a number of fish bioassays for determining reproductive and reproductive-endocrine effects of a bleached kraft mill effluent. The bleached kraft mill chosen for this study had demonstrated the national response pattern in previous EEM cycles. The bioassays employed to examine reproduction were fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) 5- and 21-d, mummichog (Fundulus heteroclitus) 25-d, and zebrafish (Danio rerio) 7-d tests, all of which had egg production as the primary reproductive endpoint. Additional bioassays examining reproductive-endocrine endpoints included a 7-d mummichog test, a 7- and a 21-d threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) test, a rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) 7-d test, and in vitro sex steroid receptor and plasma protein binding bioassays. The zebrafish and fathead minnow reproductive tests showed significant suppression of egg production at the 100% effluent concentration. Endocrine data derived from the tests showed that this effluent did not impact steroidogenic endpoints at any concentration. Bioassays showed that this effluent i) was capable of eliciting cytochrome P4501A induction at as low as 10% vol/vol effluent, ii) was weakly androgenic at 10% vol/vol, and iii) showed no evidence of in vivo estrogenicity. These results were consistent with in vitro receptor binding assays showing a highly variable level of androgenic equivalents over six months of effluent testing, with little evidence of estrogenic activity. Bioassay results were consistent in that the overall conclusion was that this effluent has only a weak potential to cause reproductive impairment and would likely not do so at environmentally relevant concentrations. Field studies and a fathead minnow lifecycle study conducted concurrently were in agreement with reproductive bioassay results as white sucker exposed in the receiving environment no longer had significantly reduced gonadal development. Overall, this study provided evidence that the laboratory assays evaluated for various reproductive endpoints have potential application for future IOC work. © 2010, CAWQ.

Hu T.Q.,FPInnovations Paprican Division | Hu T.Q.,University of British Columbia | Zhao M.,FPInnovations Paprican Division | Drummond J.,FPInnovations Paprican Division | Watson P.,Canfor
Tappi Journal | Year: 2010

Water-uptake studies of dry, mountain pine beetle-infested, grey-stage lodgepole pine (LPP) sapwood chips showed that it was possible to increase the moisture content of these chips significantly (e.g., from 20.5% to 37.0% for early-grey chips) by soaking the chips for 8 min-10 min at optimal conductivity {-200 uS/cm) and pH (-6.0). The environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM)-energy-dispersive spectroscopy chemical-tracer technique provided qualitative information on water movement within 10 min of water soaking of both the green and the beetle-infested, late-grey LPP blocks. ESEM studies also showed the presence of fissures, fungal hyphae, and incipient decay in the late-grey blocks. Application: TMP mills that use dry, mountain pine beetle-infested, grey-stage lodgepole pine chips can significantly increase the moisture content of the chips before TMP pulping by extending chip washing and soaking time to 8 min-10 min and by controlling the conductivity and pH of the chip wash water.

Zhang Y.,University of New Brunswick | Ni Y.,University of New Brunswick | Wong D.,FPInnovations Paprican Division | Schmidt J.,FPInnovations Paprican Division | And 2 more authors.
J-FOR | Year: 2011

An aspen High-yield pulp (HYP) was fractionated and processed with Optical Brightening Agents (OBA), and their UV fluorescent images were taken using the fluorescence microscopy technique. The results were compared with those from a hardwood Kraft pulp. At a same OBA charge, the fluorescent intensity of OBA-treated Kraft pulp was stronger than that of the OBA-treated HYP. Interestingly, for the aspen HYP, the OBA diffusion occurred from both the fibre surface inward, and the lumen outward, while for the Kraft pulp, the OBA diffusion occurred mainly from the fibre surface inward. The difference between mechanical and Kraft pulping processes, (mechanical pulping produces open-ended fibres while chemical pulping produces intact fibres), can account for the difference in the OBA diffusion between the HYP and Kraft pulp.

Drolet F.,FPInnovations Paprican Division | Drolet F.,McGill University | Dai C.,665 East Mall
Holzforschung | Year: 2010

A new three-dimensional (3D) computer simulation model is proposed to study structure development in wood composites, particularly strand or short fiber wood composites. The model takes into account the stochastic positioning and orientation of the strands within the mat. It also predicts the response of individual strands within the structure to the compressive and shear forces produced during mat consolidation. The model provides a complete description of mat structure in three dimensions, including spatial distribution of porosity, inter-strand contact, and density. Predictions for porosity obtained with the 3D model compare very well with those from an earlier two-dimensional analytical model. Mat structure is dictated by mat density in a two-step process: rapid removal of macrovoids before the mat density reaches the original wood density and asymptotic elimination of microvoids at higher mat densification. Other factors of importance include original wood density and strand dimensions, particularly strand thickness and width. Although known for its influence on mechanical properties, strand orientation seems to have little effect on mat porosity and strand contact. © 2010 by Walter de Gruyter Berlin New York 2010.

Rebai M.,McGill University | Drolet F.,McGill University | Vidal D.,FPInnovations Paprican Division | Vidal D.,Ecole Polytechnique de Montréal | And 2 more authors.
Asia-Pacific Journal of Chemical Engineering | Year: 2011

We study the propagation of submicron airborne particles through random fibre networks such as paper. In our approach, we first construct a three-dimensional model of the network and then use a Lattice Boltzmann method to obtain the flow of air through that structure. We finally calculate the trajectories of airborne particles and determine the fraction of these particles that impinge on fibres in the network. The combined approach is used to obtain pressure drop and mechanical filtration efficiency curves for a variety of structures. Our results show that, at fixed pressure drop and flow rate, a filter with a high basis weight and porosity will perform better than one made from fewer fibres that are more densely packed, at least in the range of porosities considered. For filters with a bimodal fibre size distribution, we find that the minimum in the efficiency curve becomes sharper and moves to smaller particle sizes as the mean fibre diameter of the mixture decreases, as expected from single-fibre theory. The efficiency of capture by diffusion and interception exhibits a weaker dependence on surface area mean fibre diameter than that predicted by theory, in agreement with the observations of Brown and Thorpe. Copyright © 2010 Curtin University of Technology and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Ricard M.,FPInnovations Paprican Division
Tappi Journal | Year: 2012

A new image analysis-based instrument has been developed for measurement of low density and high density macrocontaminants from recycled pulp or whitewater. The unit is coupled to a pulp classifier that isolates the contaminants from pulp and concentrates them before their transfer to a specialized chamber that further separates the contaminants based on their relative density to water. The low density contaminants float on the water surface, whereas the high density macrocontaminants sink onto the settling plate, where images of both contaminant types are then captured and analysed. Through image analysis, the high density contaminants are further classified into two categories: contaminants that are whitish in color and mainly comprised of stickies are named heavy stickies, whereas contaminants that are blackish in color and comprised of black toners and dark wood components are named dirt. When operating in the online mode with autosamplers delivering the samples to the pulp classifier, the instrument provides macrocontaminant determinations every 15 min. The total count and surface area of both types of macrocontaminants per kilograms of pulp can then be sent by direct link to the mill data control system, allowing an effective follow-up of macrocontaminant changes in process pulps and waters. The unit also allows the user to view images of the contaminants. The analyzer results obtained in terms of number and area of macrocontaminants show a linear relationship with TAPPI T-277 om-07 Macro stickies content in pulp: the 'pick-up' method.

PubMed | FPInnovations Paprican Division
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Nanotoxicology | Year: 2010

The pulp and paper industry in Canada is developing technology for the production and use of nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC). A key component of the developmental work is an assessment of potential environmental risks. Towards this goal, NCC samples as well as carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC), a surrogate of the parent cellulosic material, were subjected to an ecotoxicological evaluation. This involved toxicity tests with rainbow trout hepatocytes and nine aquatic species. The hepatocytes were most sensitive (EC20s between 10 and 200 mg/l) to NCC, although neither NCC nor CMC caused genotoxicity. In tests with the nine species, NCC affected the reproduction of the fathead minnow at (IC25) 0.29 g/l, but no other effects on endpoints such as survival and growth occurred in the other species at concentrations below 1 g/l, which was comparable to CMC. Based on this ecotoxicological characterization, NCC was found to have low toxicity potential and environmental risk.

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