Elustondo D.M.,FPInnovations Forintek |
Oliveira L.,FPInnovations Forintek |
Avramidis S.,University of British Columbia
Maderas: Ciencia y Tecnologia | Year: 2010
One important problem in lumber drying is to maintain the lumber moisture content distribution within certain minimum and maximum values. Over-drying and under-drying are common causes for lower grade recovery and dimensional stability problems. It is known that both over-drying and underdrying can be reduced by sorting green lumber into different moisture content groups and sorting also offers the opportunity to redesign drying schedules. In this study, a new methodology was designed and tested to optimize kiln drying of lumber by implementing green sorting coupled with modified drying schedules. The methodology was applied to optimize the drying of 114 by 114mm 2 hem-fir lumber sorted with an NMI capacitance type meter at a local sawmill. It was found that in comparison to unsorted lumber, sorting into three groups can reduce the drying time by 7% approximately and recover around 3/4 of the under-dried lumber. The experimental data on lumber degrade and moisture gradients measured after drying were also reported in this paper.
Landry V.,FPInnovations Forintek |
Blanchet P.,FPInnovations Forintek |
Blanchet P.,Laval University |
Vaillancourt E.,Peintures Can Lak Inc.
BioResources | Year: 2010
Three hybrid systems were compared to a solvent-based low-VOC system. The goal of the project was to determine if the hybrid systems met the requirements of the kitchen cabinet and furniture industries. Adhesion of each system to the substrate was first evaluated, and significant differences were recorded. Subsequently, resistance to heat and moisture was evaluated using hot box and hot and cold check tests. These tests indicated that the experimental systems generally performed relatively well in terms of thermal resistance, but the appearance of those prepared from solvent-borne sealers and lacquers were less stable. The chemical resistance of these systems was also studied. The ability of the finish to withstand the effects of substances typically found in a kitchen was tested, as was their resistance to detergents and water. All the systems performed very well in vertical testing. Volatile organic compound emissions were finally measured after conditioning times of 3 and 21 days. These tests showed that the different systems behaved quite differently. The systems prepared with solvent-borne sealers and lacquers produced a high level of VOCs at the beginning of the test, with a rapid decrease thereafter, while the opposite was observed in systems based on water-borne sealers and lacquers.
Cai X.,FPInnovations Forintek |
Riedl B.,CERSIM |
Wan H.,FPInnovations Forintek |
Zhang S.Y.,FPInnovations Forintek |
Wang X.-M.,FPInnovations Forintek
Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing | Year: 2010
Low viscosity melamine-urea-formaldehyde (MUF) resin for wood impregnation was synthesized and mixed with layered silicate nanoclays. Ball-milling of the nanoclays was performed to have a better dispersion of the nanoclays into the MUF resin. The effect of nanofillers both milled and unmilled, on the curing and viscoelastic properties of the MUF was investigated, using differential scanning calorimetry and dynamical mechanical thermal analysis methods. Two exotherms were observed during the MUF curing process. The apparent activation energy was lowered for the first exotherm at lower temperature, while increased for the second exotherm, with the addition of nanoclays into the MUF. Ball-milling of nanofillers resulted in an increased apparent activation energy and longer gel time for the milled organophilic nanoclay/MUF, but shorter gel time and better dynamic mechanical properties of the milled hydrophilic nanofiller/MUF, as compared to the correspondingly unmilled nanofiller/MUF systems. The storage modulus of all the nanofiller/MUF resins was considerably increased as compared to the neat MUF resin. This improvement is, however, more obvious for the surface modified layered silicate/MUF system, due to more compatible functional-groups grafted onto the nanoclays, and stronger layered silicate/MUF matrix adhesion, thus better performances were observed for the resulting nanoclay/MUF composites. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sathre R.,Mid Sweden University |
O'Connor J.,FPInnovations Forintek
Environmental Science and Policy | Year: 2010
A displacement factor can express the efficiency of using biomass to reduce net greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, by quantifying the amount of emission reduction achieved per unit of wood use. Here we integrate data from 21 different international studies in a meta-analysis of the displacement factors of wood products substituted in place of non-wood materials. We calculate the displacement factors in consistent units of tons of carbon (tC) of emission reduction per tC in wood product. The displacement factors range from a low of -2.3 to a high of 15, with most lying in the range of 1.0 to 3.0. The average displacement factor value is 2.1, meaning that for each tC in wood products substituted in place of non-wood products, there occurs an average GHG emission reduction of approximately 2.1 tC. Expressed in other units, this value corresponds to roughly 3.9 t CO2 eq emission reduction per ton of dry wood used. The few cases of negative displacement factors are the result of worst-case scenarios that are unrealistic in current practice. This meta-analysis quantifies the range of GHG benefits of wood substitution, and provides a clear climate rationale for increasing wood substitution in place of other products, provided that forests are sustainably managed and that wood residues are used responsibly. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.