Fourmag Lda

Moreira de Conegos, Portugal

Fourmag Lda

Moreira de Conegos, Portugal

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Rodrigues F.,University of Porto | Rodrigues F.,Fourmag Lda | Palmeira-de-Oliveira A.,University of Beira Interior | Das Neves J.,INEB Institute Engineering Biomedica | And 4 more authors.
Pharmaceutical Biology | Year: 2015

Context: Currently, there is a great tendency in cosmetic area to use natural extracts. Coffee silverskin (CS) is the most abundant solid by-product generated during roasting of coffee processing. Objectives: To evaluate different CS extracts as promising cosmetic ingredients, regarding antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic properties. Materials and methods: Aqueous, hydroalcoholic and ethanolic CS extracts were obtained by an environmentally friendly procedure considering costs and pollution. Extracts were characterized for total phenolic and flavonoid contents (TPC and TFC, respectively), antioxidant activity by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), antimicrobial activity expressed as minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and cytotoxicity using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium (MTS) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assays in two skin cell lines (fibroblasts and keratinocytes). Results: The TPC of extracts was 18.33-35.25 mg of gallic acid equivalents per g of material on a dry basis (mg GAE/g db). The TFC of extracts was 1.08-2.47 μg cathechin equivalents per g dry material (μg CE/g db). The antioxidant activity was high, with values ranging between 95.95 and 216.40 μmol Fe2+/g for aqueous and alcoholic samples, respectively. Preliminary assays for antimicrobial potential showed that extracts display antibacterial activity. The MIC varied from 31.3 to 250 μg/mL for Gram-positive, and from 31.3 to 1000 μg/mL for Gram-negative. Extracts did not affect in vitro cell viability, with values near 100% in all concentrations tested. Conclusion: Results seem show that CS is a safe source of natural antioxidants with antifungal and antibacterial activity and no cytotoxicity, with potential usefulness for cosmetic applications. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.


Rodrigues F.,University of Porto | Rodrigues F.,Fourmag Lda | Palmeira-de-Oliveira A.,University of Beira Interior | das Neves J.,University of Porto | And 5 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2013

Agro-industrial by-products have the potential to be used with different purposes thus providing economical advantage to otherwise disposable residues. In particular, the field of skin care products and cosmetics may benefit from these remaining materials. Hydro-alcoholic extracts of seven species of Medicago (M. minima, M. tornata, M. truncatula, M. rigidula, M. scutelata, M. segitalis and M. sativa) were screened for antioxidant, cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activities aiming at their application as functional ingredient in skin formulations. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by standard methods such as DPPH· and FRAP. In both methods the antioxidant activity of M. segitalis displayed the highest antioxidant activity (214.49. ±. 6.69. μmol Trolox equivalent per g db for DPPH; 120.84. ±. 1.86. μmol/mg db for FRAP). For DPPH M. rigidula showed the lowest antioxidant activity (127.18. ±. 1.96. μmol Trolox equivalent per g db) and for FRAP M. minima showed the lowest one (58.05. ±. 6.09. μmol per mg db). Also, the total phenolic and total flavonoid contents (TPC and TFC, respectively) were evaluated. The TPC of the different extracts varied from 21.96. mg to 36.41. mg GAE/g db sample, being the highest TPC obtained for M. minima and the lowest for the M. scutelata. TFC varied from 5.54 to 11.67. mg CEQ/g. db sample. Linear negative correlations were established between the total phenol contents and for both the antioxidant activity methods. The extracts were also screened for cytotoxicity using MTS and LDH assays in two different skin cell lines (HaCaT and HFF-1) and showed low cytotoxicity. Preliminary assays for antimicrobial potential showed that extracts from Medicago display antibacterial activity, with MIC values of 31.3. μg/mL and 125. μg/mL for some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. Taken together, the results suggested that Medicago hydro-alcoholic extracts are a potential source of natural compounds with high levels of antioxidant activity, low cytotoxicity for skin cells and the ability to potentially prevent microbial infections of the skin due to its antimicrobial effect, as well as contribute as a natural preservative in cosmetic products. All referred above justify their possible uses in skin care products. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Rodrigues F.,University of Porto | Rodrigues F.,Fourmag Lda. | Santos J.,University of Porto | Pimentel F.B.,University of Porto | And 4 more authors.
Food and Function | Year: 2015

The present study was aimed to assess the macronutrient composition and the amino acid and vitamin E profiles of Castanea sativa shell from different production regions of Portugal (Minho, Trás-os-Montes and Beira-Alta). The nutritional composition was similar for all samples, with a high moisture content and low fat amounts. Arginine and leucine were the predominant essential amino acids (EAA) accounting for 3.55-7.21% and 1.59-2.08%, respectively, for samples of the different production zones. All the shells presented high contents of vitamin E (481.5 mg per 100 g sample, 962.8 mg per 100 g sample and 567.5 mg per 100 g sample, respectively, for Minho, Trás-os-Montes and Beira-Alta). The predominant vitamer was γ-tocopherol (670 mg per 100 g sample for Trás-os-Montes). The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of C. sativa shell were also determined. Trás-os-Montes extracts displayed the highest antioxidant activity (EC50 = 31.8 ± 1.3 μg mL-1 for DPPH; 8083.5 ± 164.8 μmol per mg db for FRAP). The total phenolic content (TPC) varied from 241.9 mg to 796.8 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE) per g db sample, the highest TPC being obtained for Trás-os-Montes. The total flavonoid content (TFC) varied from 31.4 to 43.3 mg of catechin equivalents (CEQ) per g db sample. No antimicrobial activity was observed. The results showed the potentialities of C. sativa shell extracts. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Rodrigues F.,University of Porto | Rodrigues F.,Fourmag Lda. | Sarmento B.,University of Porto | Sarmento B.,IINFACTS Institute for Research and Advanced Training in Health science and Technologies | And 2 more authors.
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy | Year: 2016

Context: Coffee silverskin (CS), a food by-product of the coffee roasting industry, has been studied as an active ingredient for skin care products due to its high potential of antioxidant activity and low cytotoxicity. Another food waste used as ingredient with promising characteristics is obtained from Medicago sativa (MS), which antioxidants and isoflavones content is high. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate and characterize a new body formulation containing two food by-products extracts. Materials and methods: Different parameters (such as pH, rheological behavior, color, antioxidant content and microbiological analysis) of a body cream formulation containing by-products (CSMS) and a formulation without extracts (F) were evaluated under a stability study during 180 days at different temperatures. Moreover, the in vitro cell toxicity and the in vivo skin safety and protective effects were also assessed. Results: Formulation showed stable physical properties and antioxidant activity during 180 days of storage. In vitro toxicity was screened in two skin cell lines (fibroblasts and keratinocytes) and any toxicity was reported. The in vivo test carried out showed that, with respect to irritant effects, CSMS formulation can be regarded as safe for topical application and the skin hydratation improved after 30 days of its use. Also, considering the consumer acceptance, more than 90% of volunteers classified it as very pleasant. Conclusions: CSMS formulation is stable and safe for topical use as no adverse and/or side effects were observed during the application period of testing, improving skin protective properties. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.


Rodrigues F.,University of Porto | Rodrigues F.,Fourmag Lda | Gaspar C.,University of Beira Interior | Palmeira-De-Oliveira A.,University of Beira Interior | And 4 more authors.
Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy | Year: 2016

Context: Currently, there is an increasing interest of cosmetic industry on natural extracts. The inclusion of antioxidants in topical formulations can contribute to minimize oxidative stress in the skin, which has been associated with aging. Also, questions of sustainability are leading to the study of new cosmetic ingredients obtained from food by-products. Coffee Silverskin (CS) is a food by-product with established antioxidant activity that has not yet been incorporated into a topical formulation. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the physical and microbiological stabilities and antioxidant activity of a hand cream formulation containing 2.5% (w/w) of CS extract upon production and after 6 months of shelf-life and in vitro safety/cytotoxicity on skin cell lines after production. Materials and methods: The in vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated with MTS and LDH assays, at different concentrations, in HaCaT and HFF-1 cells. Formulations were stored at 25 °C/65% RH and 40 °C/75% RH. Physical, microbiological, and antioxidant stabilities were evaluated by centrifugation, viscosity, total colony count, DPPH and total phenolic content (TPC). Results: The hand cream containing 2.5% (w/w) of CS extract showed stable physical characteristics independently of the storage conditions. The DPPH activity and TPC of the CS formulation were significantly higher compared with those of the base formulation. However, during storage, the antioxidant activity decreases slightly. Microbiological quality was also confirmed. No cytotoxic effects were observed. Conclusion: It is possible to suggest that this formulation is stable under extreme conditions and safe for topical use. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.


Rodrigues F.,University of Porto | Rodrigues F.,Fourmag Lda | Pimentel F.B.,University of Porto | Oliveira M.P.P.,University of Porto
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2015

Olive tree is a traditional plant which fruits (Olea europaea L.) are used for olive oil production, especially in Mediterranean countries. Olive oil extraction produces by-products, which can become a major environmental issue. Recently, some studies have been carried out on these residues regarding phytochemical identification and biological and toxicological evaluation. The bioactive compounds contained by these by-products have a high antioxidant activity (especially oleuropein), a characteristic fatty acids profile and an interesting mineral composition. Indeed, taking into account its composition and sustainability issues, the reuse of these disposal residues is advisable. These agro-industrial by-products have the potential to be used with different purposes, providing economical advantage. In particular, the field of skin care products and cosmetics may benefit from these remaining materials, as those bioactive compounds can fulfill a real cosmetic function and activity. This review presents the composition of the different olive by-products and their bioactive compounds. The possible application of these wastes as cosmetic ingredients was critically reviewed. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Rodrigues F.,University of Porto | Rodrigues F.,Fourmag Lda. | Alves A.C.,University of Porto | Nunes C.,University of Porto | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Pharmaceutics | Year: 2016

The aim of the present work was to develop and evaluate the potential of nanostructured lipid carriers associated with caffeine extracted from Coffee Silverskin (NLC-CS), a food by-product, as a new possible topical therapy of cellulitis. Caffeine gain increasing research interest due to their cosmetic potential, particularly in gynoid lipodystrophy, commonly known as cellulite. NLC-CS were prepared via double emulsion technique using polysorbate 60 as surfactant and characterized for their morphology, particle size, zeta potential, association encapsulation and stability. The in vitro skin permeation studies were performed on Franz diffusion cells using pig skin ear as permeation membrane and the optimized formulation was compared with a hydroalcoholic solution of Coffee silverskin (CS) extract. NLC-CS were within the nanosized range (≈200 nm), with a low polydispersity index (<0.25) and zeta potential values around −30 Mv, presenting storage stability up to 180 days at 25 °C/65% relative humidity (RH) and 40 °C/75% RH. The association efficiency (AE) of caffeine was about 30% at production time and after storage period. Cryo-SEM images confirmed the spherical shape of NLC-CS. The in vitro skin permeation study demonstrated that NLC-CS had a similar skin permeation profile when compared to caffeine in CS extract. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Rodrigues F.,University of Porto | Rodrigues F.,Fourmag Lda | Pereira C.,University of Porto | Pimentel F.B.,University of Porto | And 7 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2015

Recent changes in regulatory requirements and social views on animal testing have incremented the development of reliable alternative tests for predicting skin and ocular irritation potential of products based on new raw materials. In this regard, botanical ingredients used in cosmetic products are among those materials, and should be carefully reviewed concerning the potential presence of irritant constituents. In particular, cosmetic products used on the face, in vicinity of the eyes or that may come in contact with mucous membranes, should avoid botanical ingredients that contain, or are suspected to contain, such ingredients. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effect of a new cosmetic ingredient, namely, coffee silverskin (CS), with an in vitro skin and ocular irritation assay using reconstructed human epidermis, EpiSkin™, and human corneal epithelial model, SkinEthics™ HCE, and an in vivo assay. Three different extracts of CS were evaluated. The histology of the models after extracts applications was analysed. The in vitro results demonstrated that extracts were not classified as irritant and the histological analyses proved that extracts did not affect both models structure. The content of caffeine, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural and chlorogenic acid was quantified after the epidermal assay. The in vivo test carried out with the most promising extract (hydroalcoholic) showed that, with respect to irritant effects, these extracts can be regarded as safe for topical application. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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