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Berkeley, CA, United States

Singer J.R.,Four D Imaging Inc. | Stevick G.,Four D Imaging Inc. | King D.,Four D Imaging Inc.
Materials Performance | Year: 2013

The general rule for magnetic domains is that they must naturally be in the lowest available energy state. The lowest energy state for pipeline steel is to have all the domains cancel each other in direction, and exhibit no net magnetization. Each domain is fully magnetized and the domains can rotate and grow in size when driven by a magnetic field. The steel in a pipeline is hundreds of times more responsive to the magnetic field than air because of the magnetic domain growth and rotation effect. In carrying out the development of this system, we first found that the magnetic response imaging (MRI) system worked well to measure and monitor corrosion on bare pipelines. There is little difference in the response and sensitivity of the system for either bare or insulated pipelines. Source


Singer J.R.,Four D Imaging Inc. | Stevick G.,Four D Imaging Inc. | Rondinone D.,Four D Imaging Inc. | King D.,Four D Imaging Inc. | Rice R.,Four D Imaging Inc.
Materials Performance | Year: 2015

Monitoring steel pipelines for corrosion and deterioration has become an important consideration. There are serious tradeoffs in deciding upon the economic advantages of detailed monitoring vs. the reliance on historical data for piping that has aged for nearly a century. The cost of serious monitoring varies considerably. By selecting the most vulnerable areas of a pipeline for monitoring, the cost can be justified. Source

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