Fountain Technology Inc.

Wuxi, China

Fountain Technology Inc.

Wuxi, China
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Liu M.,Wuxi Jialine Electronics Materials Co. | Zhuo H.,Wuxi Jialine Electronics Materials Co. | Hou L.,Fountain Technology Inc. | Zhang S.,University of Jinan
Hecheng Shuzhi Ji Suliao/China Synthetic Resin and Plastics | Year: 2014

The polymerization of 2, 2, 2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate (TFEMA) in supercritical carbon dioxide was performed, and the effects of the monomer concentration, initiator dosage and reaction temperature on the polymerization was explored. The copolymerization of TFEMA with dodecafluoroheptyl methacrylate (MBFA-12) as comonomer was carried out. The structure of the copolymer obtained and surface properties of the films made of the copolymer were studied. The results indicate that the monomer concentration, initiator dosage and reaction temperature are the factors influencing the homopolymerization of TFEMA. The solubility of the copolymer in supercritical carbon dioxide can be improved by copolymerizing TFEMA with MBFA-12. Consequently, the number average molecular mass of the copolymer increases from 22316 to 39985, and the relative molecular mass distribution decreases from 1.93 to 1.49. In addition, the glass transition temperature of the copolymer decreases to a certain extent. The surface properties of the copolymer films are improved with the increase in the monomer MBFA-12 content of the copolymer.


Liu M.,Wuxi Jialine Electronics Material Co. | Hou L.,Fountain Technology Inc. | Zhang S.,University of Jinan
Hecheng Shuzhi Ji Suliao/China Synthetic Resin and Plastics | Year: 2012

The copolymers of chlorotrifluoroethylene (CTFE) and vinyl acetate (VAc) were prepared in supercritical carbon dioxide. The effect of the monomer ratio on the polymerization and the structure and properties of the copolymers was explored, and the surface property and solution viscosity of the copolymers was studied. The copolymers with different structures and fluorine contents could be obtained by controlling the monomer ratio. The CTFE segments in the copolymers were kept constant at about 50% in molar content when the mass ratio of VAc to CTFE was less than 4:16. The fluorine content of the copolymers was the critical factor influencing the surface property of the copolymers. If the CTFE segments content in the copolymer rose, then the fluorine content in the product increased and the contact angle between the copolymer and the solvent became larger. The copolymers' film had the lowest surface energy of 0.028 J/m 2 when the mass content of fluorine of the product was 29.16%. The viscosity of the copolymer solution increased with the augmentation of the VAc segments content.


Jones T.L.,U.S. Army | Riegel J.P.,Fountain Technology Inc. | Meredith C.S.,U.S. Army | Darling K.,U.S. Army | And 2 more authors.
Magnesium Technology | Year: 2016

Experimental evidence to the extent of the plastic flow field in magnesium targets after ballistic impact has been lacking. The work described in this paper will include the ballistic characterization of the Magnesium alloy AZ31B-H24 in three orientations: normal direction; transverse direction; and rolling direction. Semi-infinite impacts from penetrators in each of the three directions will be shown. The targets were sectioned and machined using electrical discharge machining in preparation for polishing and etching to determine the extent of plastic flow that can be seen. The authors will investigate the applicability of Effective Flow Stress in the similitude-based empirical model and the Walker-Anderson Penetration Model for small arms penetration prediction. The results will be included in this paper. Copyright © 2016 by The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society. All rights reserved.


Hoo C.M.,University of California at Irvine | Doan T.,University of California at Irvine | Starostin N.,Fountain Technology Inc. | Starostin N.,Rosemount Analytical Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Nanoparticle Research | Year: 2010

Optimal deposition procedures are determined for nanoparticle size characterization by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Accurate nanoparticle size distribution analysis with AFM requires non-agglomerated nanoparticles on a flat substrate. The deposition of polystyrene (100 nm), silica (300 and 100 nm), gold (100 nm), and CdSe quantum dot (2-5 nm) nanoparticles by spin coating was optimized for size distribution measurements by AFM. Factors influencing deposition include spin speed, concentration, solvent, and pH. A comparison using spin coating, static evaporation, and a new fluid cell deposition method for depositing nanoparticles is also made. The fluid cell allows for a more uniform and higher density deposition of nanoparticles on a substrate at laminar flow rates, making nanoparticle size analysis via AFM more efficient and also offers the potential for nanoparticle analysis in liquid environments.


Anderson C.E.,Southwest Research Institute | Riegel J.J.P.,Fountain Technology Inc.
International Journal of Impact Engineering | Year: 2015

The database for depth of penetration by projectiles into semi-infinite targets is quite extensive. The objective is to use the experimental semi-infinite penetration data to predict finite-thickness target effects. Similitude considerations are used to represent penetration response as a function of a normalized impact velocity, which is the ratio of the penetration pressure to the target strength. Then, a least-squares regression analysis methodology was applied to the normalized experimental data to provide an analytic expression for the normalized depth of penetration as a function of the normalized impact velocity over a very large velocity range, typically a few hundred meters per second to over 3500 m/s. We use the analytic expression, along with some simplifying assumptions, to estimate ballistic limit thickness T50 and/or the ballistic limit velocity V50. If a target is overmatched, i.e.; perforated by the projectile, an estimate is also made for the projectile residual velocity and residual length. The experimental data on which the regression fit is based consists of L/D 10 projectiles, so a procedure is also developed to account for different projectile aspect ratios. A series of examples are provided to demonstrate the utility and accuracy of the approach. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Anderson C.E.,Southwest Research Institute | Riegel J.P.,Fountain Technology Inc.
Proceedings - 28th International Symposium on Ballistics, BALLISTICS 2014 | Year: 2014

The database for depth of penetration by projectiles into semi-infinite targets is quite extensive. The objective is to use the experimental semi-infinite penetration data to predict finite-thickness target effects, such as the ballistic limit thickness T50 and/or the ballistic limit velocity, V50, and the residual velocity. A regression analysis is used to provide an analytic expression for the depth of penetration normalized by the original projectile length, P/L, as a function of impact velocity V over a very large velocity range, typically a few hundred meters per second to over 3000 m/s. We use this expression, along with some simplifying assumptions, to estimate T50 or V50. If a target is overmatched, i.e., perforated by the projectile, an estimate is also made for the residual velocity. The experimental data on which the regression fit is based consists of L/D 10 projectiles, so a procedure is developed to account for different projectile aspect ratios. A series of examples are provided to demonstrate the accuracy of the approach.


Riegel J.P.,Fountain Technology Inc. | Anderson C.E.,Southwest Research Institute
Proceedings - 28th International Symposium on Ballistics, BALLISTICS 2014 | Year: 2014

As reported at the 27th ISB [1], the authors have reviewed over 5000 published data points in an effort to identify high quality data that can be applied in the development of regression fits, and for comparison of analytical and numerical models. Initially, depth-ofpenetration (DOP) regressions were performed against specific sets of experiments so that only the impact velocity and depth of penetration were needed. While this is a practical step, it falls short of allowing the data to be considered in a more general form. The data were re-analyzed based on similitude considerations. In particular, one nondimensional term is the product of the projectile density times the square of the impact velocity divide by the target strength, i.e., ?p V2/∑t. This ratio represents the load imparted to the target relative to the ability of the target to resist penetration. It is this target strength parameter, which we choose to call the effective flow stress, that will be considered in this paper.


Riegel J.P.,Fountain Technology Inc. | Davison D.,Shock Transients, Inc.
Proceedings - 29th International Symposium on Ballistics, BALLISTICS 2016 | Year: 2016

Using the fit for L/D = 10 projectiles penetrating steel targets, an effective flow stress (EFS) for the target can be computed for any matched pair of experimental velocity and penetration data. The so-derived empirical EFS has previously been shown to have value in analytical analysis. For numerical analysis the EFS is taken to be the stress threshold in an elastic/perfectly plastic (Von Mises) strength model. The Johnson-Cook (JC) constitutive (strength) model, also used in numerical modeling, was taken as a baseline. The numerical analyses of L/D = 10 tungsten projectiles penetrating HzB,A steel targets using JC and Von Mises/EFS strength models matched Hohler-Stilp experimental data closely in the velocity range 1,000 to 2,000 m/s. Using the EFS in empirical, analytical, and numerical calculations yields consistent modeling of metallic target penetration.


Riegel J.P.,Fountain Technology Inc.
Proceedings - 27th International Symposium on Ballistics, BALLISTICS 2013 | Year: 2013

In the United States, MIL-STD-662 [1], "V50 Ballistic Test for Armor", is currently specified as the process to follow when evaluating armors to determine the impact velocity, V, at which the probability of penetration is equal to 50%. V50 testing is very efficient. There is minimal instrumentation required and the time required for each test is generally quite short. The challenge is to ensure that the testing is effective. For the purposes of discussion, the test would be considered ineffective if it led to false conclusions. This paper considers the problem and seeks to determine if the current testing procedures enable researchers to determine when the basic assumptions are being violated.


Riegel J.P.,Fountain Technology Inc.
Proceedings - 27th International Symposium on Ballistics, BALLISTICS 2013 | Year: 2013

The author has reviewed over 5000 published data points in an effort to identify high quality data that can be applied in the development of regressions and for comparison against analytical and numerical models It was noted that some of the data appears to have significant scatter. Outliers deserve more attention. According to Cliff Stoll[1] one should "Collect raw data and throw away the expected. What remains challenges your theories." The goal is to either determine that the data are demonstrating an unusual behavior or that there was something unusual about the impact conditions. Unfortunately, in many cases the original reports failed to provide sufficient information to confirm the actual conditions at impact. The author identified a series of long rod penetrator DOP (depth of penetration) tests that he conducted with Charles Anderson at Southwest Research Institute that have not been previously published. They have been included in this paper and used for discussions of several analysis techniques that have been applied.

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