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Hernandez-Mijares A.,University of Valencia | Hernandez-Mijares A.,Foundation for the Promotion of Healthcare and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Community | Hernandez-Mijares A.,Institute of Health Research INCLIVA | Banuls C.,University of Valencia | And 14 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

A limited amount of research suggests that oral ingestion of pinitol (3-O-methyl-D-chiro-inositol) positively influences glucose tolerance in humans. This study assessed the effects of different doses of pinitol supplementation on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity and plasma pinitol concentrations. Thirty healthy subjects underwent two one-day trials in which they consumed a nutritive beverage (Fruit Up®) containing 2.5, 4.0 or 6.0 g of pinitol and a corresponding placebo equivalent in both energy and carbohydrates. Blood samples were collected frequently over the 240-min test period. The pinitol-enriched beverage reduced serum glucose and insulin at 45 and 60 min, but only at a dose of 6.0 g. Plasma pinitol concentrations, maximum concentration and AUC increased according to the dose administered. The results show that a single dose of pinitol from a naturally-occurring food ingredient at the highest dose administered acutely influences indices of whole-body glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in healthy subjects. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Hernandez-Mijares A.,University of Valencia | Hernandez-Mijares A.,Foundation for the Promotion of Healthcare and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Community | Hernandez-Mijares A.,Institute of Health Research INCLIVA | Jover A.,University of Valencia | And 13 more authors.
Clinical Endocrinology | Year: 2013

Objective Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) is a common condition associated with increased cardiovascular risk. A standard treatment is yet to be established, as there is no consensus on the TSH cut-off values which should be used as indicators. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess cardiovascular risk in patients with SCH and to differentiate it according to TSH levels. Design This was an observational study conducted in an academic medical centre. Patients The study population consisted of 95 middle-aged women recently diagnosed with SCH and 65 euthyroid controls. Measurements We measured anthropometric parameters, lipid cardiovascular risk markers and lipoprotein subclasses of HDL and LDL. Results Patients with SCH exhibited a significant increase in triglycerides and atherogenic index of plasma and a significant reduction in HDL-cholesterol with respect to the control group after adjusted by age and BMI. A similar lipid profile was observed in both SCH groups. However, patients with TSH levels higher than 10 mIU/l showed a significant reduction in LDL particle size, which was associated with a higher prevalence of atherogenic pattern B. Conclusions Our findings indicate that cardiovascular risk is affected in patients with TSH levels over 10 mIU/l, who have a lipid profile characteristic of atherogenic dyslipidemia. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Jove M.,University of Lleida | Naudi A.,University of Lleida | Portero-Otin M.,University of Lleida | Cabre R.,University of Lleida | And 11 more authors.
FASEB Journal | Year: 2014

Lipidomics reveals a remarkable diversity of lipids in human plasma. In this study, we have performed an in-depth lipidomic analysis of human plasma from healthy individuals and subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in order to determine the lipidomic profile that allows prognosis of a pathological subpopulation with altered high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism. The MetS population was categorized as having pathological or nonpathological HDL. Anthropometric parameters, cardiovascular risk markers, and lipoprotein subclasses of HDL and low-density lipoproteins were also evaluated. Lipidomic analysis revealed 357 differential molecules that were clustered (k means) in the two groups. The molecules identified in the whole lipidome showed that MetS subjects presented lower levels of glycerolipids and higher levels of glycerophospholipids with respect to control subjects. In contrast, when only statistically differential lipids were taken into account, differences were found between the two groups in almost cases. Furthermore, levels of saturated fatty acids were higher in patients with pathological HDL levels than in controls, whereas levels of unsaturated fatty acids were lower. These results highlight the potential of lipidomics as a clinical tool for risk assessment and monitoring of disease. © FASEB.

Victor V.M.,Foundation for the Promotion of Healthcare and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Community | Victor V.M.,University of Valencia | Rovira-Llopis S.,Foundation for the Promotion of Healthcare and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Community | Rovira-Llopis S.,University of Valencia | And 12 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Investigation | Year: 2015

Background: Anorexia nervosa is a common psychiatric disorder in adolescence and is related to cardiovascular complications. Our aim was to study the effect of anorexia nervosa on metabolic parameters, leucocyte-endothelium interactions, adhesion molecules and proinflammatory cytokines. Materials and Methods: This multicentre, cross-sectional, case-control study employed a population of 24 anorexic female patients and 36 controls. We evaluated anthropometric and metabolic parameters, interactions between leucocytes polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), proinflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble cellular adhesion molecules (CAMs) including E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Results: Anorexia nervosa was related to a decrease in weight, body mass index, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR, and an increase in HDL cholesterol. These effects disappeared after adjusting for BMI. Anorexia nervosa induced a decrease in PMN rolling velocity and an increase in PMN rolling flux and PMN adhesion. Increases in IL-6 and TNF-α and adhesion molecule VCAM-1 were also observed. Conclusions: This study supports the hypothesis of an association between anorexia nervosa, inflammation and the induction of leucocyte-endothelium interactions. These findings may explain, in part at least, the increased risk of vascular disease among patients with anorexia nervosa. © 2015 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

Apostolova N.,Jaume I University | Apostolova N.,University of Valencia | Rocha M.,Foundation for the Promotion of Healthcare and Biomedical Research in the Valencian Community | Rocha M.,University of Valencia | And 10 more authors.
Current Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2014

Endothelial dysfunction involving dysfunctional mitochondria precedes the development of cardiovascular diseases. This impairment results from an increase in reactive oxygen species, which leads to oxidative stress and a reduced bioavailability of nitric oxide. It has been demonstrated that oxidative stress and alterations in glucose and lipid homeostasis (e.g. hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and dyslipidemia) are linked to mitochondrial impairment and that all of them contribute to endothelial dysfunction. Anti-hyperlipidemic drugs such as statins, anti-hypertensive drugs and angiotensin receptor antagonists have been shown to exert protection through anti-oxidative stress mechanisms. Other substances with antioxidant properties, such as vitamins, are also capable of abolishing the oxidative stress associated with cardiometabolic diseases. However, the results obtained with general antioxidants in clinical trials are contradictory, perhaps due to the unspecific nature of the targets selected. This study correlates endothelial dysfunction and mitochondrial dysfunction and examines current research for the selective targeting of specific molecules (such as ·NO donors and antioxidants) to mitochondria with the aim of protecting the endothelium against oxidative stress in cardiovascular diseases. © 2014 Bentham Science Publishers.

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