Luaces-Regueira M.,Foundation for Research in Digestive Diseases |
Iglesias-Garcia J.,Foundation for Research in Digestive Diseases |
Iglesias-Garcia J.,University of Santiago de Compostela |
Lindkvist B.,Foundation for Research in Digestive Diseases |
And 7 more authors.
Pancreas | Year: 2014
OBJECTIVES: Several recent studies have demonstrated the association between smoking and chronic pancreatitis (CP). However, less is known about the role of smoking in the development of CP-related complications. Our aim was to investigate the impact of smoking and alcohol consumption on age of onset and complications at CP diagnosis. METHODS: A cross-sectional case-case study was performed within a prospectively collected cohort of patients with CP. Alcohol consumption and smoking habits were assessed using a standardized questionnaire. Morphologic severity was defined based on endoscopic ultrasound criteria for CP and classified as mild (3-4 criteria), moderate (5-6 criteria), and severe (≥7 criteria or calcifications). Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) was diagnosed using the C-mixed triglyceride breath test. Odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for CP-related complications were calculated using a case-case design. RESULTS: A total of 241 patients were included. Smoking was associated with PEI (OR [95% CI], 2.4 [1.17-5.16]), calcifications (OR [95% CI], 2.33 [1.10-4.95]), and severe morphologic changes (OR [95% CI], 3.41 [1.31-8.85]) but not with pseudocysts or diabetes. Neither smoking nor alcohol consumption was associated with age of onset. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco, but not alcohol, is associated with PEI, calcifications, and severe morphologic (≥7 criteria or calcifications) CP at diagnosis. Smoking cessation should be encouraged in patients with CP. © 2014 by Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.