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Randive B.,R D Gardi Medical College | Randive B.,Foundation for Research in Community Health FRCH | Chaturvedi S.,R D Gardi Medical College | Chaturvedi S.,Foundation for Research in Community Health FRCH | And 2 more authors.
BMC Health Services Research | Year: 2012

Background: Contracting in private sector is promoted in developing countries facing human resources shortages as a challenge to reduce maternal mortality. This study explored provision, practice, performance, barriers to execution and views about contracting in specialists for emergency obstetric care (EmOC) in rural India. Methods. Facility survey was conducted in all secondary and tertiary public health facilities (44) in three heterogeneous districts in Maharashtra state of India. Interviews (42) were conducted with programme managers and district and block level officials and with public and private EmOC specialists. Locations of private obstetricians in the study districts were identified and mapped. Results: Two schemes, namely Janani Suraksha Yojana and Indian Public Health standards (IPHS) provided for contracting in EmOC specialists. The IPHS provision was chosen for use mainly due to greater sum for contracting in (US $ 30/service episode vs.300 US$/month). The positions of EmOC specialists were vacant in 83% of all facilities that hence had a potential for contracting in EmOC specialists. Private specialists were contracted in at 20% such facilities. The contracting in of specialists did not greatly increase EmOC service outputs at facilities, except in facilities with determined leadership. Contracting in specialists was useful for non emergency conditions, but not for obstetric emergencies. The contracts were more of a relational nature with poor monitoring structures. Inadequate infrastructure, longer distance to private specialists, insufficient financial provision for contracting in, and poor management capacities were barriers to effective implementation of contracting in. Dependency on the private sector was a concern among public partners while the private partners viewed contracting in as an opportunity to gain experience and credibility. Conclusions: Density and geographic distribution of private specialists are important influencing factors in determining feasibility and use of contracting in for EmOC. Local circumstances dictate balance between introduction or expansion of contracts with private sector and strengthening public provisions and that neither of these disregard the need to strengthen public systems. Sustainability of contracting in arrangements, their effect on increasing coverage of EmOC services in rural areas and overlapping provisions for contracting in EmOC specialists are issues for future consideration. © 2012 Randive et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Atre S.R.,Foundation for Research in Community Health | Rangan S.G.,Maharashtra Association of Anthropological science | Shetty V.P.,Foundation for Medical Research | Gaikwad N.,Foundation for Medical Research | And 2 more authors.
Leprosy Review | Year: 2011

Objectives: To study sociodemographic profiles, perceptions about leprosy and health seeking patterns among adult leprosy patients and parents of children with leprosy detected through a prevalence survey conducted earlier, in rural areas of Panvel tehsil in Maharashtra. Methods: The study was cross-sectional and used mixed (qualitative and quantitative) methods. Of the 97 confirmed rural leprosy cases who had been detected through the initial prevalence survey, 58 newly detected adult leprosy cases and parents of 22 children detected with leprosy were interviewed with a semistructured interview schedule between May 2008 and March 2009. Findings: The study revealed that most of the leprosy patients belonged to the poor socioeconomic strata. Nearly 58% of the adult patients reported that they had been detected through the survey within 3 months of noticing their symptom(s) for the first time. Despite having been diagnosed and receiving treatment, only 48% of adult cases knew their condition as leprosy, reflecting their poor knowledge of the disease and lack of communication between providers and patients. The symptom 'patch on the skin' seems to have percolated in the community. Despite approaching the private or public sector for help in the first instance, many patients and children remained undiagnosed and untreated for leprosy. Conclusion: Active surveys for leprosy case detection should substitute the self-reporting approach until IEC measures are sufficiently effective to achieve a significant impact on transmission. Nevertheless both approaches will need the presence of staff with active diagnostic skills and optimal drug availability at PHCs. © Lepra.


Atre S.,Foundation for Research in Community Health | Kudale A.,Foundation for Research in Community Health | Morankar S.,Foundation for Research in Community Health | Gosoniu D.,Swiss Tropical Institute | Weiss M.G.,Swiss Tropical Institute
Global Public Health | Year: 2011

Stigma associated with tuberculosis (TB) is often regarded as a barrier to health seeking and a cause of social suffering. Stigma studies are typically patientcentred, and less is known about the views of communities where patients reside. This study examined community perceptions of TB-related stigma. A total of 160 respondents (80 men and 80 women) without TB in the general population of Western Maharashtra, India, were interviewed using Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue interviews with same-sex and cross-sex vignettes depicting a person with typical features of TB. The study clarified features of TB-related stigma. Concealment of disease was explained as fear of losing social status, marital problems and hurtful behaviour by the community. For the female vignette, heredity was perceived as a cause for stigmatising behaviour. Marital problems were anticipated more for the male vignette. Anticipation of spouse support, however, was more definite for men and conditional for women, indicating the vulnerability of women. Community views acknowledged that both men and women with TB share a psychological burden of unfulfilled social responsibilities. The distinction between public health risks of infection and unjustified social isolation (stigma) was ambiguous. Such a distinction is important for effective community-based interventions for early diagnosis of TB and successful treatment. © 2010 Taylor & Francis.


McGettigan P.,William Harvey Research Institute | Roderick P.,Queen Mary, University of London | Mahajan R.,Foundation for Research in Community Health | Kadam A.,Foundation for Research in Community Health | Pollock A.M.,Queen Mary, University of London
PLoS Medicine | Year: 2015

In 2012, an Indian parliamentary committee reported that manufacturing licenses for large numbers of fixed dose combination (FDC) drugs had been issued by state authorities without prior approval of the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO) in violation of rules, and considered that some ambiguity until 1 May 2002 about states’ powers might have contributed. To our knowledge, no systematic enquiry has been undertaken to determine if evidence existed to support these findings. We investigated CDSCO approvals for and availability of oral FDC drugs in four therapeutic areas: analgesia (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs [NSAIDs]), diabetes (metformin), depression/anxiety (anti-depressants/benzodiazepines), and psychosis (anti-psychotics). This was an ecologic study with a time-trend analysis of FDC sales volumes (2007–2012) and a cross-sectional examination of 2011–2012 data to establish the numbers of formulations on the market with and without a record of CDSCO approval (“approved” and “unapproved”), their branded products, and sales volumes. Data from the CDSCO on approved FDC formulations were compared with sales data from PharmaTrac, a database of national drug sales. We determined the proportions of FDC sales volumes (2011–2012) arising from centrally approved and unapproved formulations and from formulations including drugs banned/restricted internationally. We also determined the proportions of centrally approved and unapproved formulations marketed before and after 1 May 2002, when amendments were made to the drug rules. FDC approvals in India, the United Kingdom (UK), and United States of America (US) were compared. For NSAID FDCs, 124 formulations were marketed, of which 34 (27%) were centrally approved and 90 (73%) were unapproved; metformin: 25 formulations, 20 (80%) approved, five (20%) unapproved; anti-depressants/benzodiazepines: 16 formulations, three (19%) approved, 13 (81%) unapproved; anti-psychotics: ten formulations, three (30%) approved, seven (70%) unapproved. After 1 May 2002, the proportions of approved FDC formulations increased for NSAIDs (26%/28%) and anti-psychotics (0%/38%) and decreased for metformin (100%/75%) and anti-depressants/benzodiazepines (20%/18%), and the overall proportion approved remained similar before and after that date. FDC formulations gave rise to multiple branded products, ranging from 211 anti-psychotic FDC products from ten formulations to 2,739 NSAID FDC products from 124 formulations. The proportions of FDC sales volumes arising from unapproved formulations were as follows: anti-depressants/benzodiazepines, 69%; anti-psychotics, 43%; NSAIDs, 28%; and metformin, 0.4%. Formulations including drugs banned/restricted internationally comprised over 12% of NSAID FDC sales and 53% of anti-psychotic FDC sales. Across the four therapeutic areas, 14 FDC formulations were approved in the UK and 22 in the US. There was evidence supporting concerns about FDCs. Metformin excepted, substantial numbers of centrally unapproved formulations for NSAID, anti-depressant/benzodiazepine, and anti-psychotic FDCs were marketed; sales volumes were high. The legal need for central approval of new drugs before manufacture has been in place continuously since 1961, including for FDCs meeting the applicable legal test. Proportions of centrally unapproved formulations after 1 May 2002 did not decrease overall, and no ambiguity was found about states’ licensing powers. Unapproved formulations should be banned immediately, prioritising those withdrawn/banned internationally and undertaking a review of benefits and risks for patients in ceasing or switching to other medicines. Drug laws need to be amended to ensure the safety and effectiveness of medicines marketed in India. © 2015 McGettigan et al.


Atre S.R.,Foundation for Research in Community Health
Indian journal of public health | Year: 2011

Multidrug - resistant TB (MDR - TB) has emerged as a major threat to global TB control efforts in recent years. Facilities for its diagnosis and treatment are limited in many high - burden countries, including India. In hyper - endemic areas like Mumbai, screening for newly diagnosed cases at a higher risk of acquiring MDR - TB is necessary, for initiating appropriate and timely treatment, to prevent its further spread. To assess risk factors associated with MDR - TB among Category I, new sputum smear-positive cases, at the onset of therapy. The study applied an unmatched case - control design for 514 patients (106 cases with MDR - TB strains and 408 controls with non - MDR - TB strains). The patients were registered with the Revised National Tuberculosis Control Program (RNTCP) in four selected wards of Mumbai during April 2004 - January 2007. Data were collected through semi - structured interviews and drug susceptibility test results. Multivariate analysis indicated that infection with the Beijing strain (OR = 3.06; 95% C.I. = 1.12 - 8.38; P = 0.029) and female gender (OR = 1.68; 95% C.I. = 1.02 - 2.87; P = 0.042) were significant predictors of MDR-TB at the onset of therapy. The study provides a starting point to further examine the usefulness of these risk factors as screening tools in identifying individuals with MDR-TB, in settings where diagnostic and treatment facilities for MDR-TB are limited.


Karvande S.,Foundation for Research in Community Health | Sonawane D.,Foundation for Research in Community Health | Chavan S.,Foundation for Research in Community Health | Mistry N.,Foundation for Research in Community Health
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition | Year: 2016

Background: Quality instillation has its own challenges, facilitators and barriers in various settings. This paper focuses on exploration of quality components related to practices, health system challenges and quality enablers from providers' perspectives with a focus on maternal health studied through a pilot research conducted in 2012-2013 in two states of India-Bihar and Jharkhand-with relatively poor indicators for maternal health. Methods: Qualitative data through in-depth interviews of 49 health providers purposively selected from various cadres of public health system in two districts each from Bihar and Jharkhand states was thematically analysed using MAXQDA Version 10. Results: Maternity management guidelines developed by the National Health Mission, India, were considered as a tool to learn instillation of quality in provision of health services in various selected health facilities. Infrastructure, human resources, equipments and materials, drugs, training capacity and health information systems were described as health system challenges by medical and paramedical health providers. On a positive note, the study findings simultaneously identified quality enablers such as appreciation of public-private partnerships, availability of clinical guidelines in the form of wall posters in health facilities, efforts to translate knowledge and evidence through practice and enthusiasm towards value of guidelines. Conclusions: Against the backdrop of quality initiatives in the country to foster United Health Care (UHC), frontline health providers' perspectives about quality and safety need to be considered and utilized. The provision of adequate health infrastructure, strong health management information system, introduction of evidence-based education and training with supportive supervision must constitute parallel efforts. © 2016 Karvande et al.


Chaturvedi S.,Foundation for Research in Community Health | Randive B.,Foundation for Research in Community Health | Mistry N.,Foundation for Research in Community Health
Journal of Health, Population and Nutrition | Year: 2013

Severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are common causes of maternal deaths worldwide and more so in developing countries. Magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) is now the most-recommended drug of choice to treat these conditions. Despite favourable policies for the use of MgSO4 treatment in India, eclampsia continues to take a high toll. This study examined the availability and use of MgSO4 treatment in the public health system and poor women's recent experiences with eclampsia treatment in Maharashtra state. A mix of qualitative and quantative methods was used. A facility-based survey of all secondary and tertiary healthcare facilities (n=44) in 3 selected districts and interviews with public and contracted-in private sector obstetricians, health officials, and programme managers were conducted. A list of recently-delivering women from marginalized communities, with up to two livebirths, was drawn through a community-level survey in 272 villages covered by 60 subcentres selected at random. Mothers were selected for interviews, using maximum variation sampling, and interviews were conducted with 17% of the mothers who reported having experienced eclampsia; 61% of facilities had no stock of MgSO4, the stock-out position continuing from a period ranging from 3 months to 3 years while another 20% had some stock, although less than the expected minimum quantity. No treatment for eclampsia was provided in the recent 3 months at 73% facilities. Our survey of recently-delivering mothers recorded a history of eclampsia in 3.2% pregnancies/ deliveries. Interviews with 10 such mothers revealed that treatment for eclampsia has been sought from public as well as private hospitals and from traditional healers. However, facilities where women have received medical treatment are exclusively in the private sector. Almost all public and private care providers were aware of MgSO4 as the gold standard to treat eclampsia; however, it is unclear if they knew of its use to treat severe pre-eclampsia. The private care providers routinely used MgSO4 for eclampsia treatment while the public care providers seemed hesitant to use it fearing risks of complications. We stress the need for improved inventory control practices to ensure sustained availability of supplies and building confidence of care providers in using MgSO4 treatment for severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in public facilities, in addition to teaching expectant mothers how to recognize symptoms of these conditions. © INTERNATIONAL CENTRE FOR DIARRHOEAL DISEASE RESEARCH, BANGLADESH.


PubMed | Foundation for Research in Community Health
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Leprosy review | Year: 2011

To study sociodemographic profiles, perceptions about leprosy and health seeking patterns among adult leprosy patients and parents of children with leprosy detected through a prevalence survey conducted earlier, in rural areas of Panvel tehsil in Maharashtra.The study was cross-sectional and used mixed (qualitative and quantitative) methods. Of the 97 confirmed rural leprosy cases who had been detected through the initial prevalence survey, 58 newly detected adult leprosy cases and parents of 22 children detected with leprosy were interviewed with a semistructured interview schedule between May 2008 and March 2009.The study revealed that most of the leprosy patients belonged to the poor socioeconomic strata. Nearly 58% of the adult patients reported that they had been detected through the survey within 3 months of noticing their symptom(s) for the first time. Despite having been diagnosed and receiving treatment, only 48% of adult cases knew their condition as leprosy, reflecting their poor knowledge of the disease and lack of communication between providers and patients. The symptom patch on the skin seems to have percolated in the community. Despite approaching the private or public sector for help in the first instance, many patients and children remained undiagnosed and untreated for leprosy.Active surveys for leprosy case detection should substitute the self-reporting approach until IEC measures are sufficiently effective to achieve a significant impact on transmission. Nevertheless both approaches will need the presence of staff with active diagnostic skills and optimal drug availability at PHCs.


PubMed | Foundation for Research in Community Health
Type: | Journal: Journal of health, population, and nutrition | Year: 2016

Quality instillation has its own challenges, facilitators and barriers in various settings. This paper focuses on exploration of quality components related to practices, health system challenges and quality enablers from providers perspectives with a focus on maternal health studied through a pilot research conducted in 2012-2013 in two states of India-Bihar and Jharkhand-with relatively poor indicators for maternal health.Qualitative data through in-depth interviews of 49 health providers purposively selected from various cadres of public health system in two districts each from Bihar and Jharkhand states was thematically analysed using MAXQDA Version 10.Maternity management guidelines developed by the National Health Mission, India, were considered as a tool to learn instillation of quality in provision of health services in various selected health facilities. Infrastructure, human resources, equipments and materials, drugs, training capacity and health information systems were described as health system challenges by medical and paramedical health providers. On a positive note, the study findings simultaneously identified quality enablers such as appreciation of public-private partnerships, availability of clinical guidelines in the form of wall posters in health facilities, efforts to translate knowledge and evidence through practice and enthusiasm towards value of guidelines.Against the backdrop of quality initiatives in the country to foster United Health Care (UHC), frontline health providers perspectives about quality and safety need to be considered and utilized. The provision of adequate health infrastructure, strong health management information system, introduction of evidence-based education and training with supportive supervision must constitute parallel efforts.


PubMed | Foundation for Research in Community Health
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of health, population, and nutrition | Year: 2013

Severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia are common causes of maternal deaths worldwide and more so in developing countries. Magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) is now the most-recommended drug of choice to treat these conditions. Despite favourable policies for the use of MgSO4 treatment in India, eclampsia continues to take a high toll. This study examined the availability and use of MgSO4 treatment in the public health system and poor womens recent experiences with eclampsia treatment in Maharashtra state. A mix of qualitative and quantative methods was used. A facility-based survey of all secondary and tertiary healthcare facilities (n = 44) in 3 selected districts and interviews with public and contracted-in private sector obstetricians, health officials, and programme managers were conducted. A list of recently-delivering women from marginalized communities, with up to two livebirths, was drawn through a community-level survey in 272 villages covered by 60 subcentres selected at random. Mothers were selected for interviews, using maximum variation sampling, and interviews were conducted with 17% of the mothers who reported having experienced eclampsia; 61% of facilities had no stock of MgSO4, the stock-out position continuing from a period ranging from 3 months to 3 years while another 20% had some stock, although less than the expected minimum quantity. No treatment for eclampsia was provided in the recent 3 months at 73% facilities. Our survey of recently-delivering mothers recorded a history of eclampsia in 3.2% pregnancies/ deliveries. Interviews with 10 such mothers revealed that treatment for eclampsia has been sought from public as well as private hospitals and from traditional healers. However, facilities where women have received medical treatment are exclusively in the private sector. Almost all public and private care providers were aware of MgSO4 as the gold standard to treat eclampsia; however, it is unclear if they knew of its use to treat severe pre-eclampsia. The private care providers routinely used MgSO4 for eclampsia treatment while the public care providers seemed hesitant to use it fearing risks of complications. We stress the need for improved inventory control practices to ensure sustained availability of supplies and building confidence of care providers in using MgSO4 treatment for severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in public facilities, in addition to teaching expectant mothers how to recognize symptoms of these conditions.

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