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Rodriguez-Santana E.,Foundation for Interdisciplinary Research and Development | Santana-Blank L.,Foundation for Interdisciplinary Research and Development
Photomedicine and Laser Surgery | Year: 2014

Objective: The purpose of this study was to present preliminary evidence of the exclusion zone (EZ) and photobiomodulation (PBM) phenomena relating to ophthalmology. Background data: Water is the main media and fluid found in ocular tissues. Water is also an important photoacceptor and energy storage medium. Eyes are abundantly exposed to environmental radiant energy. Therefore, multiple light-energy-absorption mechanisms may exist, including those associated with the recently discovered fourth phase of water, known as EZ. Methods: Retrospective analysis of published data indicative of EZ phenomena related, in this first communication, to the retina and optic nerve (ON), using surgical microscopy and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results: Images showing removal of the internal limiting membrane (ILM) aided by preservative-free triamcinolone acetonide (TA) during macular hole surgery show continuous whitish lines indicative of water-layer ordering at the interface between collagen matrices and TA crystals. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) results further exhibit an axis parallel to the ON, which may be an ocular expression of the EZ linked to the steady potential of the eye. Conclusions: Although existing results are still being decoded and analyzed in light of the state of the art studies of light-water interactions, they suggest a new understanding of the eye's bioenergetic environment, which may have deep implications in ocular physiology as well as in the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of blinding diseases using light-based therapies such as photobiomodulation. Research is needed to confirm the interpretation of these findings and validate potential ophthalmic applications. © Copyright 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source


Santana-Blank L.,Foundation for Interdisciplinary Research and Development | Rodriguez-Santana E.,Foundation for Interdisciplinary Research and Development | Santana-Rodriguez K.E.,Foundation for Interdisciplinary Research and Development
Journal of Chinese Clinical Medicine | Year: 2011

Objective Despite medical ad varices over the last decades, cancer is still a major cause of death worldwide. This paper explores whether laser photobiomodulation, alone and/or combined with other therapies, may be developed into a safe, effective treatment for various forms of cancer (solid tumors). Methods A literature search of English-language articles in five databases (Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge, Cochrane, Google Scholar, Scirus) was conducted using search terms relating to cancer (neoplasm, advanced cancer, palliative) in combination with photobiomodulation and/or low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in the period from January 1990 to December 2010. Controlled clinical trials with at least 1 year of follow up and minimum compliance of 90% were included. Clinical studies evaluating linfaoedema, mucositis or pain were also included to illustrate post-LLLT responses to adverse effects of chemo-radiotherapy. Uro and in studies were further considered as preliminary data for clinical trials. Results Retrieved articles suggest that photobiomodulation can modulate anti-tumor effects and reduce adverse effects of chemo-radiotherapy. Results are discussed giving particular attention to two mechanistic proposals with potential anticancer applications, photo-m-frared pulsed biomodulation (PIPBM) and water oscillator (WO). Other topics include cancer proliferation, Warburg effect, classic photobiomodulation hypothesis and ATP signaling. Conclusion Translational research with laser photobiomodulation appears warranted. Source


Rodriguez-Santana E.,Foundation for Interdisciplinary Research and Development | Santana-Blank L.,Foundation for Interdisciplinary Research and Development | Santana-Rodriguez K.E.,Foundation for Interdisciplinary Research and Development
Journal of Chinese Clinical Medicine | Year: 2011

Background Intraocular pressure (IOP) is to date the only modifiable risk factor for glaucoma. This paper reports IOP changes in patients with advanced neoplasias treated with an infrared pulsed laser device (IPLD) in a phase I clinical trial and evaluates potential hypotensor bioeffects of the photo -infrared pulsed biomod-ulation (PIPBM) and water oscillator (WO) mechanisms. Study Design Non-comparative interventional case re -view. Retrospective report. Methods Medical records were selected with the following criteria: At least 1 pre-treat-ment IOP measurement and 1 IOP measurement 3 months post -IPLD treatment taken within 60 min of the time of initial diurnal measurement using a calibrated Goldmann applanation tonometer; absence of ocular macro -metastasis, ocular hypertension, glaucoma, previous ocular surgery, or use of steroids, melatonin or topical ocular medication during treatment. Total daily radiant exposure was 4. 5 × 10 4 J/m 2/day (power density 4. 5 × 10 4 mW/cm 2). Main Outcome Measures: Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and IOP. Statistical analysis: Student' s t test. Results The charts of 5 patients (n = 10 eyes) met selection criteria (45%). Average age:39 (range:25-59). Sex:2M (40%),3F (60%). A sustained, symmetric IOP drop of 2 mmHg was observed 3 months post-IPLD treatment in OU (P≤0.0004) remaining under 18 mmHg; no changes were found in BCVA. Conclusion Despite limitations, the clinical and statistical significance of these preliminary data and available mechanistic information suggest an IOP hypotensor effect. Given the clinical safety already documented and the need for effective IOP hypotensor thera -pies with the neuroprotective and vasoprotective features potentially involved, additional ophthalmic research into PIPBM and WO effects over specific targets appears warranted. Source


Santana-Blank L.,Foundation for Interdisciplinary Research and Development | Rodriguez-Santana E.,Foundation for Interdisciplinary Research and Development | Santana-Rodriguez K.E.,Foundation for Interdisciplinary Research and Development
Photomedicine and Laser Surgery | Year: 2012

Objective: In this personal view, we propose that the modulation of the structure and function of water by light may come to embody a new mechanistic approach for the treatment of complex diseases. Background data: Long considered an innocuous medium, water has increasingly been found to be a key player in numerous mechanisms, including first-contact events in which cells decide between survival and apoptosis. Consequently, externally applied electromagnetic energy (light) may selectively target the organization of water to steer biological function. Methods: We survey light-water research with particular emphasis on the quasi-crystalline exclusion zone (EZ), part of the cell's aqueous interface that is just now beginning to be decoded. The current state of research, the technical challenges involved in obtaining evidence in biological systems, and some potential uses and implications of EZ water in medicine are presented. Results: Though existing data have not yet proven the role of EZ water in photobiomodulation, research shows that EZ water can store charge and can later return it in the form of current flow, with as much as 70% of the input charge being readily obtainable. Macroscopic separation of charges can be stable for days to weeks and has unusual electric potential. Water is, thus, an unexpectedly effective charge separation and storage medium. Conclusions: We propose that the EZ may be selectively targeted in photobiomodulation as an efficient energy reservoir, which cells can use expeditiously to fuel cellular work, triggering signaling pathways and gene expression in the presence of injury-induced redox potentials. © 2012 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source


Santana-Blank L.,Foundation for Interdisciplinary Research and Development | Rodriguez-Santana E.,Foundation for Interdisciplinary Research and Development | Santana-Rodriguez K.E.,Foundation for Interdisciplinary Research and Development | Reyes H.,Foundation for Interdisciplinary Research and Development
Photomedicine and Laser Surgery | Year: 2016

Objective: Set within the context of the 2015 International Year of Light and Light-Based Technologies,and of a growing and aging world population with ever-rising healthcare needs, this perspective and mini-review focuses on photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy as an emerging, cost-effective, treatment option for cancer (i.e., solid tumors) and other complex diseases, particularly, of the eye (e.g., age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, glaucoma, retinitis pigmentosa) and the central nervous system (e.g., Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease). Background data: Over the last decades, primary and secondary mechanisms of PBM have been revealed. These include oxygen-dependent and oxygen-independent structural and functional action pathways. Signal and target characteristics determine biological outcome, which is optimal (or even positive) only within a given set of parameters. Methods: This study was a perspective and nonsystematic literature mini-review. Results: Studies support what we describe as a paradigm shift or "quantum leap" in the understanding and use of light and its interaction with water and other relevant photo-cceptors to restore physiologic function. Conclusions: Based on existing evidence, it is argued that PBM therapy can raise the standard of care and improve the quality of life of patients for a fraction of the cost of many current approaches. PBM therapy can, therefore,benefit large, vulnerable population groups, including the elderly and the poor, whilehaving a major impact on medical practice and public finances. © Copyright 2016, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2016. Source

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