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Arrieta O.,National Cancer Institute INCan | Cardona A.F.,Santa Fe Institute | Cardona A.F.,Foundation for Clinical and Applied Cancer Research FICMAC | Corrales L.,Medical Oncology | And 13 more authors.
Lung Cancer | Year: 2015

Objectives: In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), the association between common EGFR mutations (Del EX19/L858R) with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) has been well established. However, this has not been investigated for rare EGFR mutations or their impact on treatment response and outcome to EGFR TKIs (primary objective) and chemotherapy (secondary objective). Materials and methods: In an observational prospective cohort, we analyzed 188 NSCLC patients from Mexico, Colombia and Costa Rica with EGFR mutations. As a first line of treatment, 66.5% received platinum-based chemotherapy. All patients received TKIs in first-line treatment or after progression to chemotherapy. The clinical-pathological characteristics as well as the f of common and rare EGFR mutations associated with treatment response were analyzed. Results: Of all patients, 79.5% had common and 20.5% had rare EGFR mutations. Lepidic and acinar adenocarcinomas were associated with common EGFR mutations (p=. 0.010). Patients with common EGFR mutations had higher response rates to EGFR-TKIs than those who had rare EGFR mutations (63.8 vs 32.4%, p<. 0.001). Women had increased progression-free survival (PFS) to EGFR-TKIs than men (16.4 vs 9.5 months, p=. 0.02). The median PFS and overall survival (OS) were better in patients with common EGFR mutations (15.5 vs 3.9 months, p<. 0.001; and 37.3 vs 17.4 months, p<. 0.001) respectively. Conclusion: Our findings suggested that only patients with rare EGFR mutations could receive platinum-based chemotherapy as a first-line treatment, due to their low response rates and short PFS in response to EGFR-TKIs. Consequently, EGFR-TKIs could be reserved as a second- or third-line treatment. In patients with EGFR mutations, women have better PFS to EGFR-TKIs than men, and rare EGFR mutations are more frequent in high grade adenocarcinomas than in low grade tumors. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Cardona A.F.,Institute of Oncology | Cardona A.F.,Foundation for Clinical and Applied Cancer Research FICMAC | Rojas L.,Foundation for Clinical and Applied Cancer Research FICMAC | Rojas L.,Hospital Universitario San Ignacio | And 15 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed, carboplatin and bevacizumab (PCB) followed by maintenance therapy with pemetrexed and bevacizumab (PB) in chemotherapy-naïve patients with stage IV non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) through the influence of thymidylate synthase (TS) protein and mRNA expression on several outcomes. The primary endpoints were the overall response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Methods: A cohort of 144 patients were administered pemetrexed (500 mg/m2), carboplatin (AUC, 5.0 mg/ml/min) and bevacizumab (7.5 mg/kg) intravenously every three weeks for up to four cycles. Maintenance PB was administered until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. Results: One hundred forty-four Colombian patients with a median follow-up of 13.8 months and a median number of 6 maintenance cycles (range, 1-32) were assessed. The ORR among the patients was 66% (95% CI, 47% to 79%). The median PFS and (OS) rates were 7.9 months (95% CI, 5.9-10.0 months) and 21.4 months (95% CI, 18.3 to 24.4 months), respectively. We documented grade 3/4 hematologic toxicities, including anemia (14%), neutropenia (8%), and thrombocytopenia (16%). The identified grade 3/4 non-hematologic toxicities were proteinuria (2%), venous thrombosis (4%), fatigue (11%), infection (6%), nephrotoxicity (2%), and sensory neuropathy (4%). No grade >3 hemorrhagic events or hypertension cases were reported. OS was significantly higher in patients with the lowest TS mRNA levels [median, 29.6 months (95% CI, 26.2-32.9)] compared with those in patients with higher levels [median, 9.3 months (95% CI, 6.6-12.0); p = 0.0001]. TS expression (mRNA levels or protein expression) did not influence the treatment response. Conclusion: Overall, PCB followed by maintenance pemetrexed and bevacizumab was effective and tolerable in Hispanic patients with non-squamous NSCLC. This regimen was associated with acceptable toxicity and prolonged OS, particularly in patients with low TS expression. We found a role for Ki67 and TS expression as prognostic factors. © 2016 Cardona et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

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