Foundation for Advancement of International Science

Tsukuba, Japan

Foundation for Advancement of International Science

Tsukuba, Japan
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Hayashi Y.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Kajikawa M.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Matsumoto T.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | Okada N.,Tokyo Institute of Technology | And 2 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2014

LINEs mobilize their own copies via retrotransposition. LINEs can be divided into two types. One is a stringent type, which constitutes a majority of LINEs. The other is a relaxed type. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of retrotransposition, we used here two different zebrafish LINEs belonging to the stringent type. By using retrotransposition assays, we demonstrated that proteins (ORF2) encoded by an individual LINE recognize the cognate 3′ tail sequence of the LINE RNA strictly. By conducting in vitro binding assays with a variety of ORF2 proteins, we demonstrated that the region between the endonuclease and reverse transcriptase domains in ORF2 is the site at which the proteins bind the stem-loop structure of the 3′ tail RNA, showing that the strict recognition of the stem-loop structure by the cognate ORF2 protein is an important step in retrotransposition. This recognition can be bipartite, involving the general recognition of the stem by cTBR (conserved tail-binding region) of ORF2 and the specific recognition of the loop by vTBR (variable tail-binding region). This is the first report that clearly characterized the RNA-binding region in ORF2, providing the generality for the recognition mechanism of the RNA tail by the ORF2 protein encoded by LINEs. © The Author(s) 2014.


Shimamura M.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Shimamura M.,Foundation for Advancement of International Science
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis | Year: 2012

Steryl glycosides, sterols glycosylated at the 3β-hydroxy group, have been widely found in plants, algae, and fungi, but are rare in bacteria and animals. Glycosylation of sterols is known to modify properties of the cell membrane and confer resistance against stresses by freezing or heat-shock on cells. Furthermore, accumulating evidence obtained from recent research suggests important biological functions of steryl glycosides, including regulation of host defenses against pathogens, lipid metabolism, and developmental events. This review is focused on the immunological functions of steryl glycosides, such as modulation of host immune functions upon exposure to cholesteryl glycosides produced by pathogenic bacteria. © L. Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Wroclaw, Poland 2012.


Patent
Foundation For Advancement Of International Science | Date: 2013-07-03

With respect to a vacuum tube having a reduced pressure vessel containing an electric discharge gas sealed therein, problems such as the lowering of discharge efficiency owing to an organic material, moisture or oxygen remaining in the reduced pressure vessel have taken place conventionally. It has been now found that the selection of the number of water molecules, the number of molecules of an organic gas and the number of oxygen molecules remaining in the reduced pressure vessel, in a relation with the number of molecules of a gas contributing the electric discharge allows the reduction of the adverse effect by the above-mentioned remaining gas. Specifically, the selection of the number of molecules of the above electric discharge gas being about ten times that of the above-mentioned remaining gas or more can reduce the adverse effect by the above-mentioned remaining gas.


Patent
Tohoku University and Foundation For Advancement Of International Science | Date: 2012-04-18

The present invention concerns a CMOS semiconductor device comprising at least a pair of n-channel transistor (100n) and a p-channel transistor (100p), in which each of said n-channel and said p-channel transistors is comprised of a channel region, a source region (17,18) formed at one of both sides of said channel region, a drain region (17,18) formed at another one of the both sides of said channel region, two first electrodes (21,22) electrically connected to said source and said drain regions (531,532), respectively, and a second electrode (16) formed on said channel region through a gate insulating film (15), the interface between said channel region and said gate insulating film (15) is made flat at the atomic level, at least contact portions of said first electrodes respectively contacting the source and the drain regions (17) of said n-channel transistor (100n) are formed of a first metal silicide, at least contact portions of said second electrodes respectively contacting the source and the drain regions (18) of said p-channel transistor (100p) are formed of a second metal silicide different from said first metal silicide, and said CMOS semiconductor device is an accumulation-mode transistor.


Lu X.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Lu X.,University of Tsukuba | Akasaka T.,Huazhong University of Science and Technology | Akasaka T.,University of Tsukuba | And 2 more authors.
Accounts of Chemical Research | Year: 2013

Endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) are hybrid molecules with different metallic species encapsulated inside the fullerene cages. In addition to conventional EMFs that contain only metal ions, researchers have constructed novel compounds that encapsulate metallic clusters of nitride, carbide, oxide, cyanide, and sulfide. Among these structures, carbide cluster metallofullerenes (CCMFs) are unique because their synthesis requires only graphite and the metal source. As a result the molecular structures of CCMFs are particularly difficult to characterize. Two carbon atoms are encapsulated inside the cage, but they do not participate in constructing the cage framework. Recent X-ray crystallographic studies of EMFs have allowed researchers to unambiguously identify CCMFs (MxC2@C2n). Previously most of these structures had been described as conventional EMFs Mx@C 2n+2. Most of these species are scandium-containing compounds such as Sc3C2@Ih(7)-C80 [not Sc 3@C3v(7)-C82], Sc2C 2@C2v(5)-C80 [not Sc2@C 82], Sc2C2@Cs(6)-C82 [not Sc2@Cs(10)-C84], Sc2C 2@C2v(9)-C82 [not Sc2@C 2v(17)-C84], Sc2C2@C 3v(8)-C82 [not Sc2@D2d(23)-C 84], and Sc2C2@D2d(23)-C 84 [not Sc2@C86]. Additional examples of CCMFs include Gd2C2@D3(85)-C92, Sc 2C2@C2v(6073)-C68, Ti 2C2@D3h(5)-C78, M2C 2@C3v(8)-C82, M2C2@C s(6)-C82 (M = Y, Er, etc.), Y2C 2@C84, Y2C2@D3(85)-C 92, Y2C2@D5(450)-C100, and Lu3C2@D2(35)-C88. The existence of so many CCMF species reminds us that the symbol '@' (which denotes the encapsulation status of EMFs) should be used with caution with species whose molecular structures have not been determined unambiguously.This Account presents a detailed summary of all aspects of CCMFs, including historically erroneous assignments and corrected structural characterizations, along with their intrinsic properties such as electrochemical and chemical properties. We emphasize structural issues, features that are fundamental for understanding their intrinsic properties. Finally, we discuss the formation mechanism and possible origin of cluster EMFs, not just CCMFs. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Patent
Tohoku University and Foundation For Advancement Of International Science | Date: 2011-02-16

With inversion-mode transistors, intrinsic-mode transistors, or semiconductor-layer accumulation-layer current controlled accumulation-mode transistors, variation in threshold voltages becomes large in miniaturized generations due to statistical variation in impurity atom concentrations and thus it is difficult to maintain the reliability of an LSI. Provided is a bulk current controlled accumulation-mode transistor which is formed by controlling the thickness and the impurity atom concentration of a semiconductor layer so that the thickness of a depletion layer becomes greater than that of the semiconductor layer. For example, by setting the thickness of the semiconductor layer to 100nm and setting the impurity concentration thereof to be higher than 210^(17) [cm^(-3)], the standard deviation of variation in threshold values can be made smaller than a power supply voltage-based allowable variation value.


Patent
Tohoku University and Foundation For Advancement Of International Science | Date: 2011-02-16

A multilayer wiring board 100 comprises a first wiring region 101 where wirings 103a and insulating layers 104a and 104b are alternately laminated, and a second wiring region 102 where a thickness H2 of an insulating layer 104 is twice or more a thickness H1 of the insulating layer in the first wiring region 101 and a width W2 of a wiring 103b is twice or more a width W1 of the wiring in the first wiring region 101. The first wiring region 101 and the second wiring region 102 are integrally formed on the same board.


Patent
Tohoku University and Foundation For Advancement Of International Science | Date: 2010-06-16

An object of the present invention is to provide a cathode body having a high intensity, a high efficiency, and a long life. The cathode body of the present invention is manufactured by forming, on a cylindrical cup formed of a metal alloy containing lanthanum oxide and having a high thermal conductivity, a LaB_(6) film using a magnetron sputtering apparatus capable of sputtering at a low electron temperature.


Patent
Tohoku University and Foundation For Advancement Of International Science | Date: 2011-03-09

A semiconductor device manufacturing method includes the steps of ion-implanting a p-type or an n-type impurity into a Si layer portion to become a p-type or an n-type contact region of a semiconductor device, forming a metal film for a contact on a surface of the contact region without performing heat treatment for activating implanted ions after the ion-implanting step, and forming a silicide of a metal of the metal film by causing the metal to react with the Si layer portion by heating. It is desired to simultaneously perform the step of forming the silicide and the step of activating the implanted ions by heat treatment after the metal film is formed.


Patent
Tohoku University and Foundation For Advancement Of International Science | Date: 2010-10-06

A CMOS semiconductor device comprising at least a pair of n-channel transistor (100n) and a p-channel transistor (100p), characterized in that:each of said n-channel and said p-channel transistors is comprised of a channel region, a source region (17,18) formed at one of both sides of said channel region, a drain region (17,18) formed at another one of the both sides of said channel region, two first electrodes (21,22) electrically connected to said source and said drain regions (531,532), respectively, and a second electrode (16) formed on said channel region through a gate insulating film (15),the interface between said channel region and said gate insulating film (15) is made flat at the atomic level,at least contact portions of said first electrodes respectively contacting the source and the drain regions (17) of said n-channel transistor (100n) are formed of a first metal silicide, andat least contact portions of said second electrodes respectively contacting the source and the drain regions (18) of said p-channel transistor (100p) are formed of a second metal silicide different from said first metal silicide.

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