Foundation Center for New Water Technologies

Carrión de los Céspedes, Spain

Foundation Center for New Water Technologies

Carrión de los Céspedes, Spain

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Santos M.C.,University of Seville | Martin I.,Foundation Center for New Water Technologies | Trujillo E.M.,University of Seville
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2014

Nematodes play an important role in wastewater treatment systems by contributing to removal the biochemical oxygen demand concentration or fecal bacteria. The nematodes removal can be used to evaluate the degree of efficiency of wastewater treatment systems. For water reuse, current regulations set the criteria for biological quality that pose a risk to public health (E. coli, intestinal nematodes eggs, Legionella spp., etc.), regardless the control of certain organisms, such as plant-parasitic nematodes, that can cause diseases in crops and great economic losses in the agricultural sector. This study considers the effectiveness of the removal of total nematodes as method of measuring the efficiency of wastewater treatment systems. Additionally, the presence of plant-parasitic nematodes will be studied in the frame of water reuse. Finally, the biochemical oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, and total suspended solids were analyzed in order to evaluate the performance of treatment systems. It was detected the presence of plant-parasitic nematodes in the outputs of some systems, which demonstrate the need to include its control in the current regulations for water reuse in irrigation. © 2013 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.


Aragon C.A.,Foundation Center for New Water Technologies | Ortega E.,Center for Hydrographic Studies | Ferrer Y.,Center for Hydrographic Studies | Salas J.J.,Foundation Center for New Water Technologies
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2013

Since the 1st of January of 2006, all the agglomerations in the EU Member States must have a collection and treatment system for urban wastewater. The large and medium size populations were the first in being provided by treatment infrastructures, according to the 91/271/ EEC Directive's schedule, meanwhile the small populations (less than 2,000 population equivalent) have been pushed into the background. One of the objectives of the Spanish Programme on Sanitation and Wastewater Treatment (2007-2015) is to address the sanitation and treatment of small populations. However, the information regarding the status of sanitation in those populations is limited and not clear. In order to moderate this lack of information, the Centre for Studies and Experimentation of Public Works and the Centre for New Water Technologies, commissioned by the former Ministry of Environment, have conducted a study based on the compilation and analysis of both diverse official documents and direct inquiries to the responsible authorities in the matter. According to the information compiled, it can be concluded that the coverage of sanitation and wastewater treatment in small Spanish populations is less than 50% and it is estimated that more than 6,000 small size wastewater treatment plants should be built in the near future where long-term solutions must be promoted. © 2013 Balaban Desalination Publications.


Avila C.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Bayona J.M.,CSIC - Institute of Environmental Assessment And Water Research | Martin I.,Foundation Center for New Water Technologies | Salas J.J.,Foundation Center for New Water Technologies | Garcia J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2015

A full-scale hybrid constructed wetland (CW) system based on three stages of different wetlands configurations showed to be a very robust ecotechnology for domestic wastewater treatment and reuse in small communities. It consisted of a 317-m2 vertical subsurface flow (VF), a 229-m2 horizontal subsurface flow (HF), and a 240-m2 free water surface (FWS) CWs operating in series. VF and HF wetlands were planted with Phragmites australis and the FWS contained a mixture of plant species. An excellent overall treatment performance was exhibited on the elimination of conventional water quality parameters (98-99% average removal efficiency for TSS, BOD5 and NH4-N; n=8), and its final effluent proved to comply with existing Spanish regulations for various reuse applications. The removal of studied emerging contaminants, which included various pharmaceuticals, personal care products and endocrine disruptors, was also very high (above 80% for all compounds), being compound dependent (n=8). The high rates were achieved due to high temperatures as well as the differing existing physico-chemical conditions occurring at different CW configurations, which would allow for the combination and synergy of various abiotic/biotic removal mechanisms to occur (e.g. biodegradation, sorption, volatilization, hydrolysis, photodegradation). While aerobic metabolic pathways and solids retention are enhanced in the VF bed, other removal mechanisms such as anaerobic biodegradation and sorption would predominate in the HF bed. At last, photodegradation through direct sunlight exposure, and less importantly, sorption onto organic matter, seem to take an active part in organic contaminant removal in the FWS wetland. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


avila C.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Salas J.J.,Foundation Center for New Water Technologies | Martin I.,Foundation Center for New Water Technologies | Aragon C.,Foundation Center for New Water Technologies | Garcia J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2013

An integrated pilot-scale treatment system consisting of a vertical subsurface flow (317m2), a horizontal subsurface flow (229m2) and a free water surface (240m2) constructed wetlands operating in series for the treatment of a combined sewer effluent was put into operation and monitored over a period of about 1.5 years. The goal of the treatment system was to provide effluents suitable for various water reuse applications. Moreover, the influence of pulses of high flow resulting from several rain events over the treatment performance of the system was evaluated. An intensive sampling campaign was also carried out following an intense storm (45mm in one-hour span) to have a further insight into the characteristics of the inflowing water at the early part of it or so-called 'first-flush'. Results under dry weather conditions showed a good performance on the removal of BOD5, COD and TSS taking place already in the vertical flow wetland (94, 85 and 90%, respectively). A high removal of total nitrogen occurred also in the vertical flow wetland (66%) suggesting both nitrification and denitrification to take place, presumably due to the existence of both aerobic and anoxic microenvironments within the bed. Removal of Escherichia coli along the treatment system was of almost 5log units. To this respect, the horizontal flow and free water surface wetlands proved to be crucial treatment units to achieve a water quality suitable for further reuse (e.g. recharge of aquifers by percolation through the ground, silviculture and irrigation of green areas non accessible to the public). Although the occurrence of the storm event caused a prompt raise of COD and TSS within the first 30min of rainfall (868 and 764mgL-1, respectively), it was soon followed by a dilution effect. In general the storm events did not jeopardize the correct functioning of the system, proving its robustness for the treatment of a combined sewer effluent. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Barco-Bonilla N.,University of Almeria | Romero-Gonzalez R.,University of Almeria | Plaza-Bolanos P.,University of Almeria | Plaza-Bolanos P.,University of Granada | And 4 more authors.
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2013

A distribution study of 204 organic contaminants, including polar and nonpolar pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and phenolic compounds, between the two phases composing municipal wastewater (WW) from a small community (aqueous phase and suspended particulate matter (SPM)) has been performed to establish whether the compounds can be more prone to be in the aqueous or in the solid phase, depending on their hydrophobicity. Therefore, a general procedure is proposed to evaluate this issue. This study shows that nonpolar pesticides and PAHs are distributed between the aqueous phase and the SPM (e.g. pyrethroids are mainly found in the SPM), whereas polar pesticides and phenolic compounds are mainly present in the aqueous phase. This fact made clear the relevance of the analysis of both phases in WW samples, bearing in mind that if SPM is discarded, an important fraction of some contaminants is not determined and therefore, it does not assess the total load of pollutants discharged, underestimating the real impact on the environment. © 2013 Balaban Desalination Publications.


Romero Pareja P.M.,University of Cádiz | Real Jimenez A.,Foundation Center for New Water Technologies | Aragon C.A.,Foundation Center for New Water Technologies | Quiroga J.M.,University of Cádiz | Coello M.D.,University of Cádiz
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2016

The production of excess sludge in the conventional activated sludge (CAS) process is an important aspect of the operation of wastewater treatment plants. The oxic-settling-anaerobic (OSA) process is one of the most promising strategies among those to achieve a reduction in the excess sludge produced. Cell decay occurs at a low oxidation–reduction potential and subsequent degradation reactions seem to be the major causes of sludge reduction in the OSA process. As a consequence of previous exposure of the sludge to anaerobic conditions in the sludge holding tank, an increase of enzymatic and microbiological activity in the aeration reactor could enhance the degradation of the released material. In this study, the results of a pilot plant running sequentially as a CAS and a CAS-OSA system are shown not only in the terms of the crucial aspect of excess sludge reduction, but also in terms of enzymatic and microbiological activities in the sludge from the aeration tank. Specifically, the application of the OSA strategy with a sludge anaerobic exposure time (SAET) of 5.5 h achieved a 33.6% reduction of the produced sludge in comparison with the CAS approach. Similarly, this system showed an average increase of 23.2, 22.6 and 7.59% in the specific oxygen uptake rate (SOUR), dehydrogenase, and protease activity, respectively, and a negligible change in glucosidase activity compared to the conventional process. At the same way, the OSA process with a SAET of 8 h led to a reduction of 38.9% of produced sludge and an average increase of 27.9, 11.31, 28.7 and 26.57% in SOUR, dehydrogenase, protease, and glucosidase activity, respectively, compared to control unit. © 2015 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.


Romero P.,University of Cádiz | Coello M.D.,University of Cádiz | Aragon C.A.,Foundation Center for New Water Technologies | Battistoni P.,Marche Polytechnic University | Eusebi A.L.,Marche Polytechnic University
Journal of Environmental Engineering (United States) | Year: 2015

The activated sludge process constitutes the most widely used wastewater treatment. The main drawback of this biological technology, however, is the excess sludge produced (ESP). In fact, disposal and management of this waste is one of the most expensive management costs at wastewater treatment plants (WWTP). Cell lysis based on the lower net biomass growth under cryptic conditions is one way to minimize the ESP directly in the water line. Ozone is a powerful oxidant used for this purpose. This paper reports the long-term data obtained at a full-scale plant (50,000 PE) where a fraction of the recycled sludge is treated with a low specific ozone dosage and a high treated sludge rate of approximately 0.5 kg MLVSSozonated/kg MLVSSbiological/d. The study presents results in terms of ESP reduction and the effect of ozone on the main WWTP performance parameters. Specific tests at different specific ozone dosages (SOD), ranging between 0.7 and 5 g O3/Kg MLVSS, were carried out to assess biomass activity changes (AUR, NUR, and PAO activity), gravitational behavior, soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) release, and variation in the nonbiodegradable chemical oxygen demand (NBCOD) fraction. The main kinetic parameters under study did not change above a threshold of SOD of 2 g O3/Kg MLVSStreated. Furthermore, a comprehensive full-scale analysis determined an overall ESP reduction of 10% in terms of dry solids. Finally, an analysis of the energy consumption and economic feasibility of this technique is also reported. © 2015 American Society of Civil Engineers.


Romero P.,University of Cádiz | Coello M.D.,University of Cádiz | Quiroga J.M.,University of Cádiz | Aragon C.A.,Foundation Center for New Water Technologies
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2013

Sewage sludge production is currently considered as one of the most important problems in wastewater treatment due to the high costs of management and treatment, as well as limitations in its final use. In accordance with the order of priority in waste management options, based on the 3Rs' (reduce, reuse and recycle), numerous studies are addressing this need to minimize the sewage sludge production. This paper presents a review of recent studies in the field of sewage sludge minimisation, focusing on the techniques based on the cell lysis and cryptic growth mechanism. In addition to reducing sludge, the cell lysis-cryptic growth technologies applied in the sludge return line provide, biodegradable carbonaceous matter that aids denitrification. The promising results obtained in the full-scale application of some of the cell lysis-cryptic growth technologies constitute yet another advantage of this strategy. © 2013 Copyright Balaban Desalination Publications.


Romero P.,University of Cádiz | Coello M.D.,University of Cádiz | Aragon C.A.,Foundation Center for New Water Technologies | Eusebi A.L.,Marche Polytechnic University
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2015

The activated sludge process is the most widely used wastewater treatment. The main drawback of this technology is the excess sludge production (ESP). The ozonation of sludge of the recirculation line is used to reduce the ESP. In this study, ozonation was applied on a fraction of sludge of the recirculation line in a full-scale plant (50, 000 population equivalent) at a lower-specific ozone dose (SOD) compared to previous studies. The results of batch tests to predict the main effect of the technology on the biomass activities are reported. Specifically, tests at 0.7-5 g O3/kg MLVSS (mixed liquor volatile suspended solids) doses were made to evaluate the changes of the nitrification and denitrification rates, the population of phosphate-accumulating organisms and the gravitational properties. A certain reduction of the impact of ozonation on the kinetic parameters of sludge for values of SOD over 2 g O3/kg MLVSS was found. The present study highlights also the use of the ratio of ozonated biomass to total biomass as an important operative parameter for ozonation in full-scale plants. Reduction in ESP in the wastewater treatment plant was equal to 10% as dry solids applying a SOD from 1.03 to 1.63 g O3/kg MLVSS. An analysis of the economic cost of the technique is also reported. © IWA Publishing 2015.


PubMed | University of Cádiz and Foundation Center for New Water Technologies
Type: | Journal: Ultrasonics sonochemistry | Year: 2017

Sludge production is an undesirable by-product of biological wastewater treatment. The oxic-settling-anaerobic (OSA) process constitutes one of the most promising techniques for reducing the sludge produced at the treatment plant without negative consequences for its overall performance. In the present study, the OSA process is applied in combination with ultrasound treatment, a lysis technique, in a lab-scale wastewater treatment plant to assess whether sludge reduction is enhanced as a result of mechanical treatment. Reported sludge reductions of 45.72% and 78.56% were obtained for the two regimes of combined treatment tested in this study during two respective stages: UO1 and UO2. During the UO1 stage, the general performance and nutrient removal improved, obtaining 47.28% TN removal versus 21.95% in the conventional stage. However, the performance of the system was seriously damaged during the UO2 stage. Increases in dehydrogenase and protease activities were observed during both stages. The advantages of the combined process are not necessarily economic, but operational, as US treatment acts as contributing factor in the OSA process, inducing mechanisms that lead to sludge reduction in the OSA process and improving performance parameters.

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