Fougeres Laboratory

Javené, France

Fougeres Laboratory

Javené, France
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Fromentin C.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Fromentin C.,Agro ParisTech | Tome D.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Tome D.,Agro ParisTech | And 11 more authors.
Diabetes | Year: 2013

Dietary proteins are believed to participate significantly in maintaining blood glucose levels, but their contribution to endogenous glucose production (EGP) remains unclear. We investigated this question using multiple stable isotopes. After overnight fasting, eight healthy volunteers received an intravenous infusion of [6,6-2H2]-glucose. Two hours later, they ingested four eggs containing 23 g of intrinsically, uniformly, and doubly [15N]-[13C]-labeled proteins. Gas exchanges, expired CO2, blood, and urine were collected over the 8 h following egg ingestion. The cumulative amount of dietary amino acids (AAs) deaminated over this 8-h period was 18.1 ± 3.5%, 17.5% of them being oxidized. The EGP remained stable for 6 h but fell thereafter, concomitantly with blood glucose levels. During the 8 h after egg ingestion, 50.4 ± 7.7 g of glucose was produced, but only 3.9 ± 0.7 g originated from dietary AA. Our results show that the total postprandial contribution of dietary AA to EGP was small in humans habituated to a diet medium-rich in proteins, even after an overnight fast and in the absence of carbohydrates from the meal. These findings question the respective roles of dietary proteins and endogenous sources in generating significant amounts of glucose in order to maintain blood glucose levels in healthy subjects. © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association.


Martin H.,Fougeres Laboratory | Maris P.,Fougeres Laboratory
Journal of Applied Microbiology | Year: 2012

Aims: The objective of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal efficacy of hydrogen peroxide administered in combination with 17 mineral and organic acids authorized for use in the food industry. Methods and Results: The assays were performed on a 96-well microplate using a microdilution technique based on the checkerboard titration method. The six selected strains were reference strains and strains representative of contaminating bacteria in the food industry. Each synergistic hydrogen peroxide/acid combination found after 5-min contact time at 20°C in distilled water was then tested in conditions simulating four different use conditions. Thirty-two combinations were synergistic in distilled water; twenty-five of these remained synergistic with one or more of the four mineral and organic interfering substances selected. Hydrogen peroxide/formic acid combination was synergistic for all six bacterial strains in distilled water and remained synergistic with interfering substances. Six other combinations maintained their synergistic effect in the presence of an organic load but only for one or two bacterial strains. Conclusions: Synergistic combinations of disinfectants were revealed, among them the promising hydrogen peroxide/formic acid combination. Significance and Impact of the Study: A rapid screening method was proposed and used to reveal the synergistic potential of disinfectant and/or sanitizer combinations. © 2012 ANSES Fougères Laboratory. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.


Martin H.,Fougeres Laboratory | Maris P.,Fougeres Laboratory
Journal of Applied Microbiology | Year: 2012

Aims: The objective of this study was to evaluate fungicidal efficacy of hydrogen peroxide administered in combination with 17 mineral and organic acids authorized for use in the food industry. Methods and Results: The assays were performed on a 96-well microplate using a microdilution technique based on the checkerboard titration method. The six selected strains (one yeast and five fungi) were reference strains and strains representative of contaminating fungi found in the food industry. Each synergistic hydrogen peroxide/acid combination found after fifteen minutes contact time at 20°C in distilled water was then tested in conditions simulating four different use conditions. Twelve combinations were synergistic in distilled water, eleven of these remained synergistic with one or more of the four mineral and organic interfering substances selected. Hydrogen peroxide/formic acid combination remained effective against four strains and was never antagonistic against the other two fungi. Combinations with propionic acid and acetic acid stayed synergistic against two strains. Those with oxalic acid and lactic acid kept their synergism only against Candida albicans. No synergism was detected against Penicillium cyclopium. Conclusions: Synergistic combinations of disinfectants were revealed, among them the promising hydrogen peroxide/formic acid combination. Significance and Impact of the Study: A rapid screening method developed in our laboratory for bacteria was adapted to fungi and used to reveal the synergistic potential of disinfectants and/or sanitizers combinations. © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.


Huguet A.,Fougeres laboratory | Pensec J.,Fougeres laboratory | Soumet C.,Fougeres laboratory
Journal of Applied Microbiology | Year: 2013

Aims: Resistance to fluoroquinolones is partially the result of a decrease in drug accumulation in Escherichia coli through different mechanisms. However, the variable contribution of these mechanisms with respect to different fluoroquinolones is poorly investigated. Therefore, the current study aimed to compare the contribution of resistance attributed to efflux-mediated mechanisms for different fluoroquinolones. Methods and Results: Susceptibility of enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were compared after treatment with an efflux pump inhibitor in 17 ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli isolates, and also the expression profile of the genes encoding the porins and efflux pumps involved in this resistance was evaluated. After treatment with the efflux pump inhibitor Phe-Arg-β-naphthylamide (PAβN), susceptibilities differed significantly between antimicrobial agents, the decrease for MIC being higher for enrofloxacin than for marbofloxacin or ciprofloxacin. AcrB expression level increased significantly (+26%) in ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli isolates compared with ciprofloxacin-susceptible isolates, whereas the expression level decreased for ompF (-50%) and ompC (-30%). Conclusions: There was a higher contribution of resistance nodulation division (RND) efflux pumps to resistance to hydrophobic fluoroquinolones. Significance and Impact of the Study: Comparison between expression profile of efflux pumps and hydrophobicity of the antimicrobial agents could result in variable resistance for different fluoroquinolones. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.


Gaugain M.,Fougeres Laboratory | Chotard M.-P.,Fougeres Laboratory | Hurtaud-Pessel D.,Fougeres Laboratory | Verdon E.,Fougeres Laboratory
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences | Year: 2016

This paper describes a method to reveal the illegal use of chloramphenicol (CAP) in animals intended for human consumption based on the detection of free CAP and chloramphenicol-glucuronide (CAP-glu) in urine. It details the different steps of the method, including hydrolysis of CAP-glu, extraction and cleanup with molecularly imprinted polymers and detection by LC-MS/MS, as well as the validation design. The efficiency of chloramphenicol release during the hydrolysis step and the stability of CAP-glu in urine samples stored at -20. °C were also investigated. These verifications were important to ensure the method's suitability for checking CAP misuse in veterinary medicine. Validation results were fully compliant with the qualitative and quantitative criteria required by European regulations. Intraday relative standard deviations were all below 7.5%, while interday relative standard deviations were below 6.9%. Recoveries lay between 93.3 and 104.6%. Purification appears very effective since no matrix effect was demonstrated. CAP-glu was found to be stable for at least 3 months, and the mean recovery following deconjugation was assessed to be 79.4%. The decision limits (CCa) were all found to be lower than 0.1. μg/kg. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Kempf I.,British Petroleum | Kempf I.,European University of Brittany | Fleury M.A.,British Petroleum | Fleury M.A.,European University of Brittany | And 8 more authors.
International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents | Year: 2013

Colistin is a cyclic decapeptide bound to a fatty acid chain. It is active against many Gram-negative bacteria by destabilising the bacterial outer membrane. Bacteria can become resistant to colistin by modification of their lipopolysaccharide, thereby reducing the affinity of polymyxins. Colistin is often administered orally in poultry and pig production to control colibacillosis. Resistant isolates are sometimes recovered from pathological cases, particularly in piglets. However, in Europe the percentage of resistance to colistin in Escherichia coli strains isolated from the digestive tract microbiota of healthy animals remains <1%. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy.


Martin H.,Fougeres Laboratory | Soumet C.,Fougeres Laboratory | Fresnel R.,Fougeres Laboratory | Morin T.,Institute Technique Agro Industriel | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Applied Microbiology | Year: 2013

Aims: The virucidal activity of peroxy-products was evaluated and compared with sodium hypochlorite using the EN 14675 European suspension test and a surface test developed in our laboratory. The classical approach on infectivity of viruses was complemented with a prospective approach on virus genomes. Methods and Results: Both infectivity tests were adapted and/or developed to determine the activity of disinfectants against reference bovine enterovirus type 1 [enteric cytopathogenic bovine orphan virus (ECBO)] and resistant hepatitis A virus (HAV) in conditions simulating practical use. Similar concentrations of active chlorine were virucidal against both viruses, either at 0·062% using the suspension test or at 0·50-1% using the surface test. However, for potassium monopersulfate and peracetic acid products, concentrations of approximately three times (3%) to 72 times (9%) higher were necessary against HAV than ECBO when determined with the suspension test. With the surface test, 4-8% peroxy-products were virucidal against HAV, either 16 times more peroxy-products concentrations than against ECBO. No significant impact on the targeted area of the viral genome measured by real-time RT-PCRs was obtained for ECBO and HAV suspensions treated with disinfectants, even with doses higher than the minimal virucidal concentrations. Conclusions: Sodium hypochlorite, but not peroxy-products, had similar activity against ECBO and HAV. No relation could be established between infectivity tests and genome destruction. Significance and Impact of the Study: This is the first comparative study that investigates with novel suspension and surface tests the reduction of infectivity and genome destruction of two resistant viruses by peroxy-compounds. The results and conclusions collected with European standards are discussed. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.


PubMed | Fougeres Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of applied microbiology | Year: 2012

The objective of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal efficacy of hydrogen peroxide administered in combination with 17 mineral and organic acids authorized for use in the food industry.The assays were performed on a 96-well microplate using a microdilution technique based on the checkerboard titration method. The six selected strains were reference strains and strains representative of contaminating bacteria in the food industry. Each synergistic hydrogen peroxide/acid combination found after 5-min contact time at 20C in distilled water was then tested in conditions simulating four different use conditions. Thirty-two combinations were synergistic in distilled water; twenty-five of these remained synergistic with one or more of the four mineral and organic interfering substances selected. Hydrogen peroxide/formic acid combination was synergistic for all six bacterial strains in distilled water and remained synergistic with interfering substances. Six other combinations maintained their synergistic effect in the presence of an organic load but only for one or two bacterial strains.Synergistic combinations of disinfectants were revealed, among them the promising hydrogen peroxide/formic acid combination.A rapid screening method was proposed and used to reveal the synergistic potential of disinfectant and/or sanitizer combinations.


PubMed | Fougeres Laboratory
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of applied microbiology | Year: 2012

The objective of this study was to evaluate fungicidal efficacy of hydrogen peroxide administered in combination with 17 mineral and organic acids authorized for use in the food industry.The assays were performed on a 96-well microplate using a microdilution technique based on the checkerboard titration method. The six selected strains (one yeast and five fungi) were reference strains and strains representative of contaminating fungi found in the food industry. Each synergistic hydrogen peroxide/acid combination found after fifteen minutes contact time at 20 C in distilled water was then tested in conditions simulating four different use conditions. Twelve combinations were synergistic in distilled water, eleven of these remained synergistic with one or more of the four mineral and organic interfering substances selected. Hydrogen peroxide/formic acid combination remained effective against four strains and was never antagonistic against the other two fungi. Combinations with propionic acid and acetic acid stayed synergistic against two strains. Those with oxalic acid and lactic acid kept their synergism only against Candida albicans. No synergism was detected against Penicillium cyclopium.Synergistic combinations of disinfectants were revealed, among them the promising hydrogen peroxide/formic acid combination.A rapid screening method developed in our laboratory for bacteria was adapted to fungi and used to reveal the synergistic potential of disinfectants and/or sanitizers combinations.


PubMed | Fougeres Laboratory
Type: | Journal: Journal of chromatography. B, Analytical technologies in the biomedical and life sciences | Year: 2016

This paper describes a method to reveal the illegal use of chloramphenicol (CAP) in animals intended for human consumption based on the detection of free CAP and chloramphenicol-glucuronide (CAP-glu) in urine. It details the different steps of the method, including hydrolysis of CAP-glu, extraction and cleanup with molecularly imprinted polymers and detection by LC-MS/MS, as well as the validation design. The efficiency of chloramphenicol release during the hydrolysis step and the stability of CAP-glu in urine samples stored at -20C were also investigated. These verifications were important to ensure the methods suitability for checking CAP misuse in veterinary medicine. Validation results were fully compliant with the qualitative and quantitative criteria required by European regulations. Intraday relative standard deviations were all below 7.5%, while interday relative standard deviations were below 6.9%. Recoveries lay between 93.3 and 104.6%. Purification appears very effective since no matrix effect was demonstrated. CAP-glu was found to be stable for at least 3 months, and the mean recovery following deconjugation was assessed to be 79.4%. The decision limits (CCa) were all found to be lower than 0.1g/kg.

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