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Eidson Road, TX, United States

Witte C.L.,Institute for Conservation Research | Rideout B.A.,Institute for Conservation Research | Fields V.,Institute for Conservation Research | Teare C.S.,White Oak Conservation Center | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine

The identification of feline herpesvirus (FHV) infected cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) and characterization of shedding episodes is difficult due to nonspecific clinical signs and limitations of diagnostic tests. The goals of this study were to develop a case definition for clinical FHV and describe the distribution of signs. Medical records from six different zoologic institutions were reviewed to identify cheetahs with diagnostic test results confirming FHV. Published literature, expert opinion, and results of a multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) were used to develop a clinical case definition based on 69 episodes in FHV laboratory confirmed (LC) cheetahs. Four groups of signs were identified in the MCA: general ocular signs, serious ocular lesions, respiratory disease, and cutaneous lesions. Ocular disease occurred with respiratory signs alone, with skin lesions alone, and with both respiratory signs and skin lesions. Groups that did not occur together were respiratory signs and skin lesions. The resulting case definition included 1) LC cheetahs; and 2) clinically compatible (CC) cheetahs that exhibited a minimum of 7 day's duration of the clinical sign groupings identified in the MCA or the presence of corneal ulcers or keratitis that occurred alone or in concert with other ocular signs and skin lesions. Exclusion criteria were applied. Application of the case definition to the study population identified an additional 78 clinical episodes, which represented 58 CC cheetahs. In total, 28.8% (93/322) of the population was identified as LC or CC. The distribution of identified clinical signs was similar across LC and CC cheetahs. Corneal ulcers and/or keratitis, and skin lesions were more frequently reported in severe episodes; in mild episodes, there were significantly more cheetahs with ocular-only or respiratory-only disease. Our results provide a better understanding of the clinical presentation of FHV, while presenting a standardized case definition that can both contribute to earlier diagnoses and be used for population-level studies. © American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source

Cray C.,University of Miami | Hammond E.,Lion Country Safari | Haefele H.,Fossil Rim Wildlife Center
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine

Grant's zebra (Equus burchelli) are commonly kept in zoos and are subject to routine health monitoring and research studies. Recently, assays for acute phase proteins (APP) have been described in many wildlife species, and specific assays for serum amyloid A (SAA) have been well validated and studied in horses (Equus ferus caballus), in which it serves as a major APP. In the present study, serum samples from 26 Grant's zebra were subject to analysis by using assays for SAA, haptoglobin (HP), and protein electrophoresis. Reference intervals were calculated by using the robust method: SAA 1.8-31.4 mg/L and HP 0.37-1.58 mg/ml. Significant differences in SAA and HP were observed in clinically abnormal zebra; in some cases, these differences were marked and were noted in the absence of abnormal values for protein electrophoretic fractions. These data indicate that APP may be a valuable and sensitive tool in monitoring inflammation in this species. Copyright 2013 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source

Wack A.N.,Fossil Rim Wildlife Center | Miller C.L.,Miami Metrozoo | Wood C.E.,Cornell University | Garner M.M.,Northwest ZooPath | Haefele H.J.,Fossil Rim Wildlife Center
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine

Melanocytic neoplasms were diagnosed in a captive black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) and a captive Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis) from different facilities. The first case was a 10-yr-old, captive-born male black rhinoceros that presented with a small firm cutaneous mass on the dorsal midline. Aspirate cytology results were suggestive of a melanocytic neoplasm, and histologic examination of the excised mass confirmed a well-differentiated neoplasm with much pigment production, minimal anaplasia, and no mitotic figures. Several months after mass removal, a similar mass with identical histologic features was excised from the right medial thigh. The second case was a 28-yr-old, wild-born female Indian rhinoceros that presented with a draining wound at the coronary band of a rear digit. Histologic examination of a biopsy from this lesion revealed a melanocytic neoplasm with moderate cellular anaplasia, frequent mitoses, and scant pigment production. At necropsy, the tumor was found to ablate P3 and most deep tissues of the toe. No evidence of vascular invasion or metastasis was found. These two cases represent the only melanocytic neoplasms in Rhinoceridae reported in detail in the literature. Copyright 2010 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians. Source

Niebuhr C.N.,Tarleton State University | Niebuhr C.N.,University of Otago | Breeden J.B.,University of Otago | Lambert B.D.,University of Otago | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Medical Entomology

Otobius megnini (Dugès), often referred to as the spinose ear tick, is a one-host tick infesting the ear canal of a variety of ungulate species. The objective of this study was to develop sampling methods for collecting free-living stages of O. megnini and to collect preliminary data on habitat distribution. Sampling occurred during 2010 and 2011 at Fossil Rim Wildlife Center (FRWC) near Glen Rose, TX, where tick presence has been observed in the ears of a variety of ungulates. To sample for nonfeeding adult stage presence, a debris-filtering method was developed using screens of varying gauges. To sample host-seeking larval-stage tick presence, a carbon dioxide (CO2 ) trap was developed using compressed CO2 released through tubing along with cotton fabric used for tick attachment. Both methods proved successful with adults and larvae collected from animal shelters, with larvae also collected from oak leaf litter away from any structure. Locating both life stages off the host is the first crucial step toward the management of this tick species at facilities such as FRWC. © 2013 Entomological Society of America. Source

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