Columbia, MD, United States
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Pisano J.T.,University of California at Riverside | Muzio L.J.,Fossil Energy Research Corp | Durbin T.D.,University of California at Riverside | Karavalakis G.,University of California at Riverside | And 2 more authors.
Combustion Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) is a postcombustion technique for reducing NO x emissions from power generation facilities. The optimization of the SNCR system involves maximizing NO x reduction while minimizing NH 3 slip. This requires optimization of both the SNCR system as well as the combustion, as their performances are interrelated. This work discusses the results of an optimization study of SNCR systems on a wood-fired boiler. This included measurements of NH 3, which was measured with a tunable diode laser, as well as temperature, O 2, CO, and NO x. The results clearly showed the interrelationship between the SNCR process and combustion. Marked improvement in SNCR performance was possible on this boiler due in part to the availability of instrumentation that allowed the operators to optimize combustion and maintain these conditions once they were defined. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Brewer E.,University of California at Riverside | Li Y.,University of California at Riverside | Finken B.,Air Quality Services Inc. | Quartucy G.,Fossil Energy Research Corp | And 4 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2016

The generation of electricity from natural gas-fired turbines has increased more than 200% since 2003. In 2007 the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) funded a project to identify control strategies and technologies for PM2.5 and ultrafine emissions from natural gas-fired turbine power plants and test at pilot scale advanced PM2.5 technologies to reduce emissions from these gas turbine-based power plants. This prompted a study of the exhaust from new facilities to better understand air pollution in California. To characterize the emissions from new natural gas turbines, a series of tests were performed on a GE LMS100 gas turbine located at the Walnut Creek Energy Park in August 2013. These tests included particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) and wet chemical tests for SO2/SO3 and NH3, as well as ultrafine (less than 100 nm in diameter) particulate matter measurements. After turbine exhaust was diluted sevenfold with filtered air, particle concentrations in the 10-300 nm size range were approximately two orders of magnitude higher than those in the ambient air and those in the 2-3 nm size range were up to four orders of magnitude higher. This study also found that ammonia emissions were higher than expected, but in compliance with permit conditions. This was possibly due to an ammonia imbalance entering the catalyst, some flue gas bypassing the catalyst, or not enough catalyst volume. SO3 accounted for an average of 23% of the total sulfur oxides emissions measured. While some of the SO3 is formed in the combustion process, it is likely that the majority formed as the SO2 in the combustion products passed across the oxidizing CO catalyst and SCR catalyst.The 100 MW turbine sampled in this study emitted particle loadings of 3.63E-04 lb/MMBtu based on Methods 5.1/201A and 1.07E-04 lb/MMBtu based on SMPS method, which are similar to those previously measured from turbines in the SCAQMD area (FERCo et al., 2014), however, the turbine exhaust contained orders of magnitude higher particles than ambient air. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Menasha J.,University of California at Irvine | Dunn-Rankin D.,University of California at Irvine | Muzio L.,Fossil Energy Research Corp | Stallings J.,EPRI
Fuel | Year: 2011

Ammonium bisulfate (ABS) forms in coal-fired power plant exhaust systems when ammonia slip from the NO x control system reacts with the sulfur oxides and water in the flue gas. The critical temperature range for ABS formation occurs in the air preheater, where ABS is known to cause corrosion and pluggage that can require unplanned outages and expensive cleaning. To develop mitigation strategies for the deleterious effects of ABS in air preheaters, it is important to know its formation temperature and deposition process. This paper describes a bench-scale experimental simulation of a single-channel air preheater, with the appropriate temperature gradient, used in conjunction with simulated coal combustion flue gas, including sulfur oxides, ammonia, and water vapor, to investigate the formation of ABS. Formation was observed optically, and the formation temperature, as well as deposition characteristics for a realistic range of reactant concentrations are presented and compared with previous studies on ABS formation. This study presents data at realistic concentrations not earlier tested, and the reported data has smaller experimental uncertainty than previously obtained. We found that the measured ABS formation temperatures under air preheater channel conditions lies between the temperatures reported by others, and is in the range of 500-520 K for typical flue gas concentrations of ammonia and sulfur oxide species. The results also show that, at least for this experimental configuration, ABS forms predominantly as an aerosol in the gas phase rather than as a condensate on the channel walls. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Smith R.,Fossil Energy Research Corp
Power Engineering (Barrington, Illinois) | Year: 2010

Fossil Energy Research Corporation (FERCo) has developed an in-situ device named KnoxCheck for real-time catalyst deactivation measurements. As the data is collected, it is analyzed by a catalyst management software program, providing information on boiler operating conditions that negatively impact catalyst activity This information can then be used to optimize boiler operation with respect to catalyst deactivation rate and the catalyst replacement schedule. The KnoxCheck uses a self-contained ammonia ked system to control ammonia concentration and extracts upstream and downstream flue gas samples to analyze the inlet and outlet NOx concentration. Catalyst activity is assessed using a metric known as reactor potential (RP), which provides a measure of the overall potential of the SCR reactor to reduce NOx by accounting for both catalyst deactivation and catalyst layer blockage. KnoxCheck provides a direct measurement of reactor potential, accounting for the actual flue gas flow rate and blockage values.

Fossil Energy Research Corp | Date: 2012-10-16

Integrated test system comprising sample probes, gas analyzers, ammonia injection, and software, used to measure the ability of catalyst to remove nitric oxides produced by combustion, without removing the catalyst from the combustion process. Scientific and technological services, namely, testing catalyst that remove nitric oxides produced by combustion without removing the catalyst from the combustion process.

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