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Columbia, MD, United States

Menasha J.,University of California at Irvine | Dunn-Rankin D.,University of California at Irvine | Muzio L.,Fossil Energy Research Corp | Stallings J.,EPRI
Fuel | Year: 2011

Ammonium bisulfate (ABS) forms in coal-fired power plant exhaust systems when ammonia slip from the NO x control system reacts with the sulfur oxides and water in the flue gas. The critical temperature range for ABS formation occurs in the air preheater, where ABS is known to cause corrosion and pluggage that can require unplanned outages and expensive cleaning. To develop mitigation strategies for the deleterious effects of ABS in air preheaters, it is important to know its formation temperature and deposition process. This paper describes a bench-scale experimental simulation of a single-channel air preheater, with the appropriate temperature gradient, used in conjunction with simulated coal combustion flue gas, including sulfur oxides, ammonia, and water vapor, to investigate the formation of ABS. Formation was observed optically, and the formation temperature, as well as deposition characteristics for a realistic range of reactant concentrations are presented and compared with previous studies on ABS formation. This study presents data at realistic concentrations not earlier tested, and the reported data has smaller experimental uncertainty than previously obtained. We found that the measured ABS formation temperatures under air preheater channel conditions lies between the temperatures reported by others, and is in the range of 500-520 K for typical flue gas concentrations of ammonia and sulfur oxide species. The results also show that, at least for this experimental configuration, ABS forms predominantly as an aerosol in the gas phase rather than as a condensate on the channel walls. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Smith R.,Fossil Energy Research Corp
Power Engineering (Barrington, Illinois) | Year: 2010

Fossil Energy Research Corporation (FERCo) has developed an in-situ device named KnoxCheck for real-time catalyst deactivation measurements. As the data is collected, it is analyzed by a catalyst management software program, providing information on boiler operating conditions that negatively impact catalyst activity This information can then be used to optimize boiler operation with respect to catalyst deactivation rate and the catalyst replacement schedule. The KnoxCheck uses a self-contained ammonia ked system to control ammonia concentration and extracts upstream and downstream flue gas samples to analyze the inlet and outlet NOx concentration. Catalyst activity is assessed using a metric known as reactor potential (RP), which provides a measure of the overall potential of the SCR reactor to reduce NOx by accounting for both catalyst deactivation and catalyst layer blockage. KnoxCheck provides a direct measurement of reactor potential, accounting for the actual flue gas flow rate and blockage values.


Grant
Agency: Environmental Protection Agency | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 48.67K | Year: 1985

THE PROJECT WILL EXAMINE THE TECHNICAL FEASIBILITY OF ENH ENHANCING THE THERMAL DESTRUCTION OF HAZARDOUS WASTE SLUDGE S, TARS, AND WATERY WASTES BY IMPROVING THE DISPERSION AND BURNOUT OF THESE MATERIALS IN INCINERATORS AND OTHER COMBUSTBUSTION EQUIPMENT. THE PRIMARY FOCUS WILL BE ON THE EVALUALUATION OF PROPRIETARY MICROWAVE TECHNIQUES, SINGLY OR POT POTENTIALLY IN COMBINATION WITH PROPRIETARY ADDITIVE M MATERIALS. THE OBJECTIVES ARE TO ACHIEVE INCREASED THERMAL DESTRUCTION EFFICIENCY, IMPROVED COMBUSTION STABILITY, RE REDUCED AUXILIARY FUEL USE (IF ANY), AND AN ABILITY TO DE DESTROY A WIDER RANGE OF HAZARDOUS WASTES. PRELIMINARY PERFORMANCE AND COST COMPARISONS WILL BE MADE WITH CONVENT IONAL TECHNIQUES INCLUDING AN EVALUATION OF RECENT EUROPEAN TECHNOLOGY.


Grant
Agency: Environmental Protection Agency | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 50.00K | Year: 1991

FOSSIL ENERGY RESEARCH CORPORATION PROPOSES THE DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL DUCT INJECTION PROCESS FOR SIMULTANEOUS REMOVAL OF SO2 AND NOX FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT FLUE GASES. IN THIS PROCESS, A MIXTURE OF LIME AND A PROPRIETARY SORBENT ISINJECTED EITHER DRY OR IN THE FORM OF A SLURRY INTO THE FLUEGAS DUCT BETWEEN THE AIR PREHEATER AND PARTICULATE COLLECTION DEVICE. LIME REMOVES SO2 AND THE PROPRIETARY SORBENT REMOVES NOX FROM THE FLUE GAS. THE NOX SEPARATED FROM THE FLUE GAS IS FED BACK TO THE BOILER WHERE IT IS REDUCED TO N2 AND H2O. THE UNUSED LIME AND MOST OF THE NOX SORBENT ARE RECOVERED AND RECYCLED. THE WASTE PRODUCT OF THE PROCESS IS A SOLID RESIDUE WHICH CONTAINS FLY ASH AND SULFATES OF CALCIUM. A ROUGH COST ESTIMATE SHOWED THAT THE PROPOSED DUCT INJECTION PROCESS HAS A POTENTIAL COST ADVANTAGE OF 60% - 70% WHEN COMPARED TO OTHER COMBINED SO2 AND NOX REMOVAL PROCESSES. FOSSIL ENERGY RESEARCH CORPORATION PROPOSES THE DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL DUCT INJECTION PROCESS FOR SIMULTANEOUS REMOVAL OF SO2 AND NOX FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT FLUE GASES. IN THIS PROCESS, A MIXTURE OF LIME AND A PROPRIETARY SORBENT ISINJECTED EITHER DRY OR IN THE FORM OF A SLURRY INTO THE FLUEGAS DUCT BETWEEN THE AIR PREHEATER AND PARTICULATE COLLECTION DEVICE. LIME REMOVES SO2 AND THE PROPRIETARY SORBENT REMOVES NOX FROM THE FLUE GAS. THE NOX SEPARATED FROM THE FLUE GAS IS FED BACK TO THE BOILER WHERE IT IS REDUCED TO N2 AND H2O. THE UNUSED LIME AND MOST OF THE NOX SORBENT ARE RECOVERED AND RECYCLED. THE WASTE PRODUCT OF THE PROCESS IS A SOLID RESIDUE WHICH CONTAINS FLY ASH AND SULFATES OF CALCIUM. A ROUGH COST ESTIMATE SHOWED THAT THE PROPOSED DUCT INJECTION PROCESS HAS A POTENTIAL COST ADVANTAGE OF 60% - 70% WHEN COMPARED TO OTHER COMBINED SO2 AND NOX REMOVAL PROCESSES. FOSSIL ENERGY RESEARCH CORPORATION PROPOSES THE DEVELOPMENT OF A NOVEL DUCT INJECTION PROCESS FOR SIMULTANEOUS REMOVAL OF SO2 AND NOX FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT FLUE GASES. IN THIS PROCESS, A MIXTURE OF LIME AND A PROPRIETARY SORBENT ISINJECTED EITHER DRY OR IN THE FORM OF A SLURRY INTO THE FLUEGAS DUCT BETWEEN THE AIR PREHEATER AND PARTICULATE COLLECTION DEVICE. LIME REMOVES SO2 AND THE PROPRIETARY SORBENT REMOVES NOX FROM THE FLUE GAS. THE NOX SEPARATED FROM THE FLUE GAS IS FED BACK TO THE BOILER WHERE IT IS REDUCED TO N2 AND H2O. THE UNUSED LIME AND MOST OF THE NOX SORBENT ARE RECOVERED AND RECYCLED. THE WASTE PRODUCT OF THE PROCESS IS A SOLID RESIDUE WHICH CONTAINS FLY ASH AND SULFATES OF CALCIUM. A ROUGH COST ESTIMATE SHOWED THAT THE PROPOSED DUCT INJECTION PROCESS HAS A POTENTIAL COST ADVANTAGE OF 60% - 70% WHEN COMPARED TO OTHER COMBINED SO2 AND NOX REMOVAL PROCESSES.


Trademark
Fossil Energy Research Corp | Date: 2008-05-20

Integrated test system comprising sample probes, gas analyzers, ammonia injection, and software, used to measure the ability of catalyst to remove nitric oxides produced by combustion, without removing the catalyst from the combustion process.

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