Foshan Environmental Protection Bureau

Foshan, China

Foshan Environmental Protection Bureau

Foshan, China
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Li Z.,South China University of Technology | Zhu W.,South China University of Technology | Ou J.,Chinese University of Hong Kong | Gao Z.,South China University of Technology | And 4 more authors.
Huanjing Kexue Xuebao/Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae | Year: 2015

Based upon chemical speciated source profiles of major VOCs sources in the Pearl River Delta region, i.e., on-road mobile source, industrial solvent usage source and non-industrial solvent usage source, local model-ready source profiles of the CB05 and the SAPRC-07 chemical mechanisms were developed and compared with the USEPA SPEICATE. Results showed that: (1) under the SAPRC-07 chemical mechanism, differences between local and USEPA SPECIATE profiles in different sources were more significant than CB05; (2) local and SPECIATE profiles were generally consistent in shoe-making industry, furniture-making industry, gasoline light duty vehicles and motorcycles, and (3) obvious discrepancies were observed in PCB-manufacturing industry, diesel light duty vehicles, LPG taxis and non-industrial solvent usage source. Given above differences and their potential influences in air quality modeling, localization of model speciated source profiles were needed. For areas still using non-local source profiles, the model speciated profiles for CB05 mechanism are recommended. © 2015, Science Press. All right reserved.


Tan J.-H.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Tan J.-H.,Tsinghua University | Guo S.-J.,Guangxi University | Ma Y.-L.,Tsinghua University | And 6 more authors.
Aerosol and Air Quality Research | Year: 2012

Concentrations of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were measured to investigate their temporal variations and major sources, and to explore the ozone formation potentials (OFP) of each NMHCs for the first time in December 2008 in Foshan. Ethane, propane, n-butane, i-pentane, 2,3-dimethylbutane, ethene, propene, ethyne, benzene and toluene were the 10 most abundant hydrocarbons, accounting for 82% of the concentration of total NMHCs. Concentrations of these hydrocarbons as well as their fractional contributions to the total NMHCs were higher in the morning and evening than in the afternoon, consistent with the variations in vehicle volumes during these periods. This suggests that the vehicular emission was likely the major source of NMHCs at this site. The mean B/T ratio (0.45 ± 0.24) further supported vehicular emission as the main source of the ambient NMHCs except for aromatic hydrocarbons. These aromatic hydrocarbons were mainly from solvent evaporation, as indicated by the diurnal variations in the ratios of toluene and m/p-xylene to benzene. The results from factor analysis also showed that combustion process and solvent usage were the major sources of NMHCs. On average, total Prop-Equiv and OFP were 153.0 ppbc and 863.4 μg/m 3, respectively. Based on MIR (maximum incremental reactivity) scale, the leading contributors to OFP in decreasing concentrations were ethene, toluene, propene, i-pentane, m/p-xylene, 1-butene, ethylbenzene, o-xylene, 2,3-dimethylbutane and trans-2-butene, which in total explained 77% of the total OFP. Ranking by Prop-Equiv, the top 10 species were propene, toluene, ethene, 1-butene, i-pentane, m/pxylene, isoprene, 2,3-dimethylbutane, trans-2-butene and ethylbenzene, accounting for 66% of the total Prop-Equiv. Thus, alkenes played the most important role in O 3 formation, followed by aromatics and alkanes during the study periods in Foshan. © Taiwan Association for Aerosol Research.


Tan J.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Tan J.,Tsinghua University | Tan J.,CAS Research Center for Eco Environmental Sciences | Duan J.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | And 7 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2016

Foshan is a major international ceramic center and the most polluted city in the Pearl River Delta (PRD). Here we present the results of the first long-term PM2.5 (particles <2.5 μm) sampling and chemical characterization study of the city. A total of 2774 samples were collected at six sites from 2008 to 2014, and analyzed for water soluble species, elements and carbonaceous species. The major constituents of PM2.5 were sulfate, OC (Organic Carbon), nitrate, ammonium and EC (Elemental Carbon), which accounted for 50%-88% of PM2.5. PM2.5 and the most abundant chemical species decreased from 2008 to 2011, but rebounded in 2012-2013. After 2008, the chemical composition of PM2.5 changed dramatically due to the implementation of pollution control measures. From 2008 to 2011, SO4 2- and NO3 - were the two largest components; subsequently, however, OC was the largest component. The respective contributions of SO4 2-, NO3 - and OC to the sum of water soluble species and carbonaceous species were 30.5%, 22.9% and 19.9% in 2008; and 20.2%, 16.5% and 30.2% in 2014. Distinct differences in nitrate and sulfate, and in mass ratio [NO3 -]/[SO4 2-] imply that mobile sources tended to more important in Foshan during 2012-2014. The results indicate that pollution control measures implemented during 2008-2014 had a large effect on anthropogenic elements (Pb, As, Cd, Zn and Cu) and water soluble species, but little influence on crustal elements (V, Mn, Ti, Ba and Fe) and carbonaceous species. The PMF method was used for source apportionment of PM2.5. Industry (including the ceramic industry and coal combustion), vehicles and dust were the three most important sources and comprised 39.2%, 20.0% and 18.4% of PM2.5 in 2008, respectively. However, secondary aerosols, vehicles and industry were the three most important sources and comprised 29.5%, 22.4% and 20.4% of PM2.5 in 2014, respectively. During the seven year study interval, the contributions of primary sources (industry and dust) decreased significantly, but secondary sources increased dramatically. Industry, dust and vehicles contributed 36.6 μg m-3, 13.9 μg m-3, and 9.2 μg m-3 to the reduction of PM2.5, respectively. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Ma Y.-L.,Tsinghua University | Tan J.-H.,Tsinghua University | Tan J.-H.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | He K.-B.,Tsinghua University | And 6 more authors.
Huanjing Kexue/Environmental Science | Year: 2011

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in Foshan City were investigated in December 6 to 30 2008.The concentrations of VOCs in haze days were significantly higher than those in no-haze days. Toluene (68.93μg · m-3 ± 37.78μg · m-3) was the most abundant compound of VOCs in haze days and i-pentane (20.59μg · m-3 ± 14.28μg · m-3) was the most abundant compound in no-haze days, respectively. During haze episodes, the diurnal variations of alkanes and alkynes were not significantly; however, alkenes and aromatic hydrocarbon decreased significantly at noon. During no-haze episodes, the diurnal variations patterns of VOCs were stable. Propylene-equivalent concentrations in haze days were significantly higher than those in no-haze days, toluene was the most abundant compound of Propylene-equivalent concentration in haze days, followed by propene and ethene; propene was the most abundant compound in no-haze days, followed by ethene and 1-butene. High concentration of benzene (18.1μg · m-3) in haze days posed a great health threat to public in Foshan city. Both diurnal variation of VOCs and measured ratios indicated vehicular emissions acted as the main sources of most VOCs and other sources like solvent application also contributed to VOCs (benzene and toluene).


Tan J.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Guo S.,Guangxi University | Ma Y.,Tsinghua University | He K.,Tsinghua University | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2011

Foshan is the most air-polluted city in Pearl River Delta. Non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were investigated for the first time in Foshan in winter 2008. Ethene, ethane, ethyne, propane, i-pentane, and toluene were the most abundant hydrocarbons and observed to be higher in Foshan than those in many other cities in China. Different from other cities, ethene and ethane were observed to be the two highest compounds in Foshan. Generally, the most abundant hydrocarbons showed high mixing ratios in the morning (0930-1030 hours), decreased to the lowest level in the afternoon (1430-1530 hours), and increased to higher value in the evening (1930-2030 hours). But i-pentane exhibited a different diurnal pattern with the highest level (13.4 ± 5.8 ppbv) in the afternoon, implying the acceleration of solvent evaporation resulting from higher temperature. Correlation coefficients (R 2= 66% for n= 6 at 95% confidence level) of the individual hydrocarbons with ethyne and i-pentane indicated vehicular emissions were the main sources of ethene, propene, i-butene, isoprene, benzene and toluene, while gasoline evaporation was responsible for n-pentane, n-hexane, and n-heptane. The good correlation of most of the hydrocarbons with ethyne, indicating vehicular emissions, were the main sources of NMHCs. B/T ratio was 0.36 ± 0.06, implying vehicular emissions acted as the major contributors as well as additional emissions of toluene emitted from solvent usage. According to investigation, it also suggested that LPG leakage was the main source of propane, while NG leakage was responsible for ethane in Foshan City. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Wang Q.-Q.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Tan J.-H.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Ma Y.-L.,Tsinghua University | He K.-B.,Tsinghua University | And 4 more authors.
Zhongguo Huanjing Kexue/China Environmental Science | Year: 2012

To investigate the characteristics of heavy metals in fine particles (PM 2.5) during winter in Foshan, a typical industrial city in Pearl River Delta, 24h integrated PM 2.5 samples were simultaneously collected at a pair of sites, one urban site and one background site, and 16 elements (Fe, Ti, Zn, V, Mn, Cu, As, Rb, Sr, Cd, Cs, Ba, Hg, Tl, Pb and Bi) of the samples were analyzed. Heavy metals at the urban site were at a high level of pollution, and generally higher than those at the background site, except Fe, Ti, Sr, and Cd. Compared with the national standard of heavy metals, the concentrations of As, and Cd were much higher and Pb exceeded slightly at the urban site, while those of As and Cd at the background site were much higher. The enrichment factors of Zn, Cu, As, and Pb were greater than 10, indicating that they were mainly from anthropogenic activities. There were clear increases in the concentrations of heavy metals during the haze period, while their daily variations at the urban site were more consistent than those in the background site. Air mass back trajectory analysis showed that the concentration distribution of heavy metals was affected by four kinds of air masses: the ones close to or starting from the northeast of Guangdong or Fujian, the ones along the coast of Guangdong and Fujian, the ones from marine and the ones from Jiangxi. The first kind of air masses increased the heavy metals concentrations, while the others decreased the levels.


Guo S.,Guangxi University | Guo S.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Tan J.,Guangxi University | Tan J.,Tsinghua University | And 4 more authors.
Atmospheric Research | Year: 2011

Atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were firstly studied during high PM10 episodes and normal days in December 2008 in Foshan, China. Ethyne, ethene, i-pentane, toluene, ethane and propane are six abundant hydrocarbons, accounting for round 80% of total NMHCs. Both diurnal variations and concentration ratios of morning (evening)/afternoon implied vehicular emission for most hydrocarbons. Correlation coefficients (R2) of ethene, propene, i-butene, benzene, toluene and i-/n-butanes with ethyne were 0.60-0.88 (they were 0.64-0.88 during high PM10 episode and 0.60-0.85 in normal days) except for ethene and i-butene in normal days, indicating these hydrocarbons are mainly related to vehicular emission. It suggests liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) and natural gas (NG) leakages are responsible for propane and ethane, respectively. The measured mean benzene/toluene (B/T) ratio (wt/wt) was 0.45±0.29 during total sampling periods together with R2 analysis, again indicating vehicular emission is main contributor to ambient hydrocarbons. And the lower B/T ratio (0.29±0.11) during high PM10 episodes than that (0.75±0.29) in normal days is likely caused by air transport containing low B/T value (0.23) from Guangzhou as well as solvent application containing toluene in Foshan. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Tan J.-H.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Tan J.-H.,Tsinghua University | Duan J.-C.,Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences | Ma Y.-L.,Tsinghua University | And 5 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

Foshan is a ceramics manufacturing center in the world and the most polluted city in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in southern China measured by the levels of atmospheric heavy metals. PM2.5 samples were collected in Foshan in winter 2008. Among the 22 elements and ions analyzed, 7 heavy metals (Zn, V, Mn, Cu, As, Cd and Pb) were studied in depth for their levels, spatiotemporal variations and sources. The ambient concentrations of the heavy metals were much higher than the reported average concentrations in China. The levels of Pb (675.7±378.5ng/m3), As (76.6±49.1ng/m3) and Cd (42.6±45.2ng/m3) exceeded the reference values of NAAQS (GB3095-2012) and the health guidelines of the World Health Organization. Generally, the levels of atmospheric heavy metals showed spatial distribution as: downtown site (CC, Chancheng District)>urban sites (NH and SD, Nanhai and Shunde Districts)>rural site (SS, Shanshui District). Two sources of heavy metals, the ceramic and aluminum industries, were identified during the sampling period. The large number of ceramic manufactures was responsible for the high levels of atmospheric Zn, Pb and As in Chancheng District. Transport from an aluminum industry park under light north-west winds contributed high levels of Cd to the SS site (Shanshui District). The average concentration of Cd under north-west wind was 220ng/m3, 20.5times higher than those under other wind directions. The high daily maximum enrichment factors (EFs) of Cd, Pb, Zn, As and Cu at all four sites indicated extremely high contamination by local emissions. Back trajectory analysis showed that the heavy metals were also closely associated with the pathway of air mass. A positive matrix factorization (PMF) method was applied to determine the source apportionment of these heavy metals. Five factors (industry including the ceramic industry and coal combustion, vehicle emissions, dust, transportation and sea salt) were identified and industry was the most important source of atmospheric heavy metals. The present paper suggests a control policy on the four heavy metals Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu, and suggests the inclusion of As in the ceramic industry emission standard in the future. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Tsinghua University, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences and Foshan Environmental Protection Bureau
Type: | Journal: The Science of the total environment | Year: 2014

Foshan is a ceramics manufacturing center in the world and the most polluted city in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) in southern China measured by the levels of atmospheric heavy metals. PM2.5 samples were collected in Foshan in winter 2008. Among the 22 elements and ions analyzed, 7 heavy metals (Zn, V, Mn, Cu, As, Cd and Pb) were studied in depth for their levels, spatiotemporal variations and sources. The ambient concentrations of the heavy metals were much higher than the reported average concentrations in China. The levels of Pb (675.7 378.5 ng/m(3)), As (76.6 49.1 ng/m(3)) and Cd (42.6 45.2 ng/m(3)) exceeded the reference values of NAAQS (GB3095-2012) and the health guidelines of the World Health Organization. Generally, the levels of atmospheric heavy metals showed spatial distribution as: downtown site (CC, Chancheng District)>urban sites (NH and SD, Nanhai and Shunde Districts)>rural site (SS, Shanshui District). Two sources of heavy metals, the ceramic and aluminum industries, were identified during the sampling period. The large number of ceramic manufactures was responsible for the high levels of atmospheric Zn, Pb and As in Chancheng District. Transport from an aluminum industry park under light north-west winds contributed high levels of Cd to the SS site (Shanshui District). The average concentration of Cd under north-west wind was 220 ng/m(3), 20.5 times higher than those under other wind directions. The high daily maximum enrichment factors (EFs) of Cd, Pb, Zn, As and Cu at all four sites indicated extremely high contamination by local emissions. Back trajectory analysis showed that the heavy metals were also closely associated with the pathway of air mass. A positive matrix factorization (PMF) method was applied to determine the source apportionment of these heavy metals. Five factors (industry including the ceramic industry and coal combustion, vehicle emissions, dust, transportation and sea salt) were identified and industry was the most important source of atmospheric heavy metals. The present paper suggests a control policy on the four heavy metals Cd, Pb, Zn, and Cu, and suggests the inclusion of As in the ceramic industry emission standard in the future.


Pan Y.,South China University of Technology | Li N.,South China University of Technology | Zheng J.,South China University of Technology | Yin S.,South China University of Technology | And 6 more authors.
Huanjing Kexue Xuebao/Acta Scientiae Circumstantiae | Year: 2015

Based on the collected activity data and emission factors, a 2010-based 3 km×3 km gridded anthropogenic air pollutant emission inventory was developed for Guangdong Province with the use of appropriate emission estimation methods. Results showed that total emissions of SO2, NOx, CO, PM10, PM2.5, BC, OC, VOCs and NH3 in Guangdong Province were 867.8×103, 1607.0×103, 7476.0×103, 1397.6×103, 633.2×103, 50.5×103, 98.3×103, 1436.5×103 and 578.3×103 t, respectively. Stationary combustion source was the largest SO2 and NOx contributor. CO emission was mainly derived from on-road mobile source, stationary combustion source and biomass combustion source. Fugitive dust and industrial process source were the largest contributors for PM10 and PM2.5 emissions, while biomass combustion source became the most significant BC and OC contributor. VOCs emission was dominated by solvent-use, on-road mobile source and industrial process source, while livestock feeding and N-fertilizer application source contributed significant NH3 emissions. Dongguan, Foshan and Guangzhou were the largest SO2, NOx, CO and VOCs contributors, while Guangzhou, Qingyuan and Meizhou were major particles emission contributors. Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Dongguan and Foshan were cities with the largest BC emissions. OC emissions were mainly concentrated in Zhanjiang and Maoming. Maoming, Zhanjiang and Zhaoqing were the top three NH3 emission contributing cities. Spatial distributions illustrated that NH3 emissions were mainly distributed in western and eastern Guangdong Province while emissions of other pollutants were concentrated in city cluster areas of the Pearl River Delta region. The emission inventory in the study has uncertainties to some extent, and more fundamental studies on emission sources are needed to improve the emission inventory in the future. ©, 2015, Science Press. All right reserved.

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