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Chowdhury T.,University of Manitoba | Kowalski S.,University of Manitoba | Arabi Y.,King Abdulaziz University | Dash H.H.,Fortis Memorial Research Institute
Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia

Background: Most of the bad outcomes in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) are related to the presence of a high incidence of pre-hospital secondary brain insults. Therefore, knowledge of these variables and timely management of the disease at the pre-hospital period can significantly improve the outcome and decrease the mortality. The Brain Trauma Foundation guideline on "Prehospital Management" published in 2008 could provide the standardized protocols for the management of patients with TBI; however, this guideline has included the relevant papers up to 2006. Methods: A PubMed search for relevant clinical trials and reviews (from 1 January 2007 to 31 March 2013), which specifically discussed about the topic, was conducted. Results: Based on the evidence, majority of the management strategies comprise of rapid correction of hypoxemia and hypotension, the two most important predictors for mortality. However, there is still a need to define the goals for the management of hypotension and inclusion of newer difficult airway carts as well as proper monitoring devices for ensuring better intubation and ventilatory management. Isotonic saline should be used as the first choice for fluid resuscitation. The pre-hospital hypothermia has more adverse effects; therefore, this should be avoided. Conclusion: Most of the management trials published after 2007 have focused mainly on the treatment as well as the prevention strategies for secondary brain injury. The results of these trials would be certainly adopted by new standardized guidelines and therefore may have a substantial impact on the pre-hospital management in patients with TBI. Source

Dureja S.,Max Superspeciality Hospital | Sen I.B.,Fortis Memorial Research Institute | Acharya S.,Sir Ganga Ram Hospital
European Spine Journal

Purpose: This is a prospective non-randomized observation study done on 33 patients with uncomplicated spinal tuberculosis to observe the imaging characteristics on sequential F-18 FDG PET CT scans. Methods: 33 consecutive patients with pathologically proven spinal tuberculosis underwent a baseline contrast-enhanced whole body FDG PET scan before initiation of antitubercular therapy, 6 and 12 months and at 18 months or the end of antitubercular therapy. Result: The baseline peak SUVmax of lesions in our 33 cases had values ranging from 5.9 to 30.3 (mean 14.8). 63.6 % patients had clinically occult non-contiguous multifocal skeletal involvement at the time of the baseline whole body PET CT scanning. The mean change in SUVmax at various time points was highly significant (p value < 0.001). Conclusion: SUVmax can be taken as a reliable marker for serial quantification of metabolic activity in spinal tuberculosis. This may translate into a potential role for FDG as an imaging biomarker for noninvasive response evaluation in skeletal tuberculosis. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Kaur J.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Mohanti B.K.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences | Mohanti B.K.,Fortis Memorial Research Institute | Muzumder S.,All India Institute of Medical Sciences
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention

The objective was to analyze the radiotherapy (RT) practice at the cancer centre of a tertiary academic medical institution in Delhi. This audit from an Indian public institution covered patient care processes related to cancer diagnosis, integration of RT with other anti-cancer modalities, waiting time, overall treatment time, and compliance with RT. Over a period of one year, all consecutively registered patients in radiotherapy were analyzed for the audit cycle. Analysis of 1,030 patients showed median age of 49.6 years, with presentation as stage I and II in 14.2%, stage III and IV in 71.2% and unknown stage in 14.6%. A total of 974 (95%) were advised for RT appointment; 669 (68.6%) for curative intent and 31.4% for palliation. Mean times for diagnostic workup and from registration at cancer centre to radiotherapy referral were 33 and 31 days respectively. Median waiting time to start of RT course was 41 days. Overall RT compliance was 75% and overall duration for a curative RT course ranged from 50 days to 61 days. Non-completion and interruption of RT course were observed in 12% and 13% respectively. Radiotherapy machine burden in a public cancer hospital in India increases the waiting time and 25% of advised patients do not comply with the prescribed treatment. Infrastructure, machine and manpower constraints lead to more patients being treated on cobalt (74%) and by two-dimensional (78%) techniques. Source

Torres C.,University of Ottawa | Riascos R.,University of Texas Medical Branch | Figueroa R.,Georgia Regents University | Gupta R.K.,Fortis Memorial Research Institute
Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Tuberculosis (TB) has shown a resurgence in nonendemic populations in recent years and accounts for 8 million deaths annually in the world. Central nervous system involvement is one of the most serious forms of this infection, acting as a prominent cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries. The rising number of cases in developed countries is mostly attributed to factors such as the pandemic of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and increased migration in a globalized world. Mycobacterium TB is responsible for almost all cases of tubercular infection in the central nervous system. It can manifest in a variety of forms as tuberculous meningitis, tuberculoma, and tubercular abscess. Spinal infection may result in spondylitis, arachnoiditis, and/or focal intramedullary tuberculomas. Timely diagnosis of central nervous system TB is paramount for the early institution of appropriate therapy, because delayed treatment is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. It is therefore important that physicians and radiologists understand the characteristic patterns, distribution, and imaging manifestations of TB in the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging is considered the imaging modality of choice for the study of patients with suspected TB. Advanced imaging techniques including magnetic resonance perfusion and diffusion tensor imaging may be of value in the objective assessment of therapy and to guide the physician in the modulation of therapy in these patients. © 2014 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Mahajan C.,Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences | Dash H.H.,Fortis Memorial Research Institute
Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences

A spectrum of conditions requires sedation and analgesia in pediatric population. Ineffective treatment of pain may result in physiological and behavioral responses that can adversely affect the developing nociceptive system. The recognition of pain in children can be facilitated by different pain scales. This article reviews the procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) practices in children along with pharmacology of the drugs used for this purpose. Source

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