Littlewood S.J.,St Lukes Hospital |
Millett D.T.,University College Cork |
Doubleday B.,Forth Valley Royal Hospital |
Bearn D.R.,University of Dundee |
Worthington H.V.,University of Manchester
Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews | Year: 2016
Background: Retention is the phase of orthodontic treatment that attempts to keep teeth in the corrected positions after treatment with orthodontic braces. Without a phase of retention, there is a tendency for teeth to return to their initial position (relapse). To prevent relapse, almost every person who has orthodontic treatment will require some type of retention. Objectives: To evaluate the effects of different retention strategies used to stabilise tooth position after orthodontic braces. Search methods: We searched the following databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 26 January 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2015, Issue 12), MEDLINE via Ovid (1946 to 26 January 2016) and EMBASE via Ovid (1980 to 26 January 2016). We searched for ongoing trials in the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We applied no language or date restrictions in the searches of the electronic databases. We contacted authors of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to help identify any unpublished trials. Selection criteria: RCTs involving children and adults who had had retainers fitted or adjunctive procedures undertaken to prevent relapse following orthodontic treatment with braces. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently screened eligible studies, assessed the risk of bias in the trials and extracted data. The outcomes of interest were: how well the teeth were stabilised, failure of retainers, adverse effects on oral health and participant satisfaction. We calculated mean differences (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for continuous data and risk ratios (RR) with 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. We conducted meta-analyses when studies with similar methodology reported the same outcome. We prioritised reporting of Little's Irregularity Index to measure relapse. Main results: We included 15 studies (1722 participants) in the review. There are also four ongoing studies and four studies await classification. The 15 included studies evaluated four comparisons: removable retainers versus fixed retainers (three studies); different types of fixed retainers (four studies); different types of removable retainers (eight studies); and one study compared a combination of upper thermoplastic and lower bonded versus upper thermoplastic with lower adjunctive procedures versus positioner. Four studies had a low risk of bias, four studies had an unclear risk of bias and seven studies had a high risk of bias. Removable versus fixed retainers Thermoplastic removable retainers provided slightly poorer stability in the lower arch than multistrand fixed retainers: MD (Little's Irregularity Index, 0 mm is stable) 0.6 mm (95% CI 0.17 to 1.03). This was based on one trial with 84 participants that was at high risk of bias; it was low quality evidence. Results on retainer failure were inconsistent. There was evidence of less gingival bleeding with removable retainers: RR 0.53 (95% CI 0.31 to 0.88; one trial, 84 participants, high risk of bias, low quality evidence), but participants found fixed retainers more acceptable to wear, with a mean difference on a visual analogue scale (VAS; 0 to 100; 100 being very satisfied) of -12.84 (95% CI -7.09 to -18.60). Fixed versus fixed retainers The studies did not report stability, adverse effects or participant satisfaction. It was possible to pool the data on retention failure from three trials that compared polyethylene ribbon bonded retainer versus multistrand retainer in the lower arch with an RR of 1.10 (95% CI 0.77 to 1.57; moderate heterogeneity; three trials, 228 participants, low quality evidence). There was no evidence of a difference in failure rates. It was also possible to pool the data from two trials that compared the same types of upper fixed retainers, with a similar finding: RR 1.25 (95% CI 0.87 to 1.78; low heterogeneity; two trials, 174 participants, low quality evidence). Removable versus removable retainers One study at low risk of bias comparing upper and lower part-time thermoplastic versus full-time thermoplastic retainer showed no evidence of a difference in relapse (graded moderate quality evidence). Another study, comparing part-time and full-time wear of lower Hawley retainers, found no evidence of any difference in relapse (low quality evidence). Two studies at high risk of bias suggested that stability was better in the lower arch for thermoplastic retainers versus Hawley, and for thermoplastic full-time versus Begg (full-time) (both low quality evidence). In one study, participants wearing Hawley retainers reported more embarrassment more often than participants wearing thermoplastic retainers: RR 2.42 (95% CI 1.30 to 4.49; one trial, 348 participants, high risk of bias, low quality evidence). They also found Hawley retainers harder to wear. There was conflicting evidence about survival rates of Hawley and thermoplastic retainers. Other retainer comparisons Another study with a low risk of bias looked at three different approaches to retention for people with crowding, but normal jaw relationships. The study found that there was no evidence of a difference in relapse between the combination of an upper thermoplastic and lower canine to canine bonded retainer and the combination of an upper thermoplastic retainer and lower interproximal stripping, without a lower retainer. Both these approaches are better than using a positioner as a retainer. Authors' conclusions: We did not find any evidence that wearing thermoplastic retainers full-time provides greater stability than wearing them part-time, but this was assessed in only a small number of participants. Overall, there is insufficient high quality evidence to make recommendations on retention procedures for stabilising tooth position after treatment with orthodontic braces. Further high quality RCTs are needed. © 2016 The Cochrane Collaboration. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Cunningham M.A.,University of Stirling |
Swanson V.,University of Stirling |
O'Caroll R.E.,University of Stirling |
Holdsworth R.J.,Forth Valley Royal Hospital
British Journal of Surgery | Year: 2012
Background: Increased walking is often recommended for patients with intermittent claudication (IC). Current methods to increase walking in these patients increase capability but not daily behaviour. This trial assessed whether a brief psychological intervention could increase daily walking at 4 months. Methods: This randomized, single-centre, parallel-group trial was conducted between April 2008 and July 2010. Patients newly diagnosed with IC were randomly assigned into two groups. All clinical staff involved in patient management were blinded to allocation. The control group received usual care plus researcher contact, and the treatment group received usual care and a brief psychological intervention to modify illness and walking beliefs and to develop a personalized walking action plan. The psychological intervention was delivered in two 1-h sessions in participants' homes. The primary outcome was daily steps measured by pedometer 4 months later. Analyses were by intention to treat. Results: Of 109 patients screened, 72 were eligible for inclusion; 58 patients consented to participate and were randomly allocated to usual care (30) or brief psychological intervention (28). All 58 participants were included in the analysis of the primary outcome. Compared with controls at 4-month follow-up, participants who received the psychological intervention walked a mean of 1575·63 (95 per cent confidence interval 731·97 to 2419·29) more steps per day. There were no adverse events. Conclusion: A brief psychological intervention significantly increased daily walking in patients with IC at 4 months. This study provided support for a potentially new direction in the treatment of IC. Registration number: ISRCTN28051878 (. Copyright © 2011 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.
Cunningham M.A.,James Cook University |
Swanson V.,University of Stirling |
Holdsworth R.J.,Forth Valley Royal Hospital |
O'Carroll R.E.,University of Stirling
British Journal of Surgery | Year: 2013
Background The authors previously reported the early results of a trial of a brief psychological intervention to increase physical activity in patients with intermittent claudication. After 4 months, participants in the intervention group walked a mean of 1576 more steps per day than control group participants. The present study followed the original participants to determine whether this behaviour change was maintained over 2 years. Methods This was a randomized single-centre parallel-group trial. Fifty-eight patients newly diagnosed with intermittent claudication were assigned randomly to one of two groups. The control group (30 patients) received usual care: lifestyle advice and consultation with a vascular surgeon to agree a treatment plan. The treatment group (28) received usual care plus a brief psychological intervention designed to modify illness and walking beliefs, and develop a personalized walking action plan. The primary outcome was daily steps measured by pedometer. Secondary outcomes included revascularization rate, quality of life and perceived pain-free walking distance. Follow-up was conducted at 1 and 2 years. Between-group differences were analysed by analysis of co-variance. Results Participants in the brief psychological intervention group walked significantly more than those in the control group. The mean difference at 1 year was 1374 (95 per cent confidence interval 528 to 2220) steps per day and the difference at 2 years was 1630 (495 to 2765) steps per day. Conclusion Modifying illness and walking beliefs, and assisting patients to develop a personalized walking action plan led to increases in walking behaviour in patients with claudication that were maintained for 2 years. Registration number: ISRCTN28051878 (http://www.controlled-trials.com). © 2013 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.
Paterson S.,Forth Valley Royal Hospital |
Duthie F.,Royal Infirmary |
Stanley A.J.,Royal Infirmary
World Journal of Gastroenterology | Year: 2012
AIM: To assess quantitative endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided elastography in the nodal staging of oesophago-gastric cancers. METHODS: This was a single tertiary centre study assessing 50 patients with established oesophago-gastric cancer undergoing EUS-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of lymph nodes between July 2007 and July 2009. EUS-guided elastography of lymph nodes was performed before EUS-FNAB. Standard EUS characteristics were also described. Cytological determination of whether a lymph node was malignant or benign was used as the gold standard for this study. Comparisons of elastography and standard EUS characteristics were made between the cytologically benign and malignant nodes. The main outcome measure was the accuracy of elastography in differentiating between benign and malignant lymph nodes in oesophageal cancers. RESULTS: EUS elastography and FNAB were performed on 53 lymph nodes. Cytological malignancy was found in 23 nodes, one was indeterminate, one was found to be a gastrointestinal stromal tumor and 25 of the nodes were negative for malignancy. On 3 occasions insufficient material was obtained for analysis. The area under the curve for the receiver operating characteristic curve for elastography strain ratio was 0.87 (P < 0.0001). Elastography strain ratio had a sensitivity 83%, specificity 96%, positive predictive value 95%, and negative predictive value 86% for distinguishing between malignant and benign nodes. The overall accuracy of elastography strain ratio was 90%. Elastography was more sensitive and specific in determining malignant nodal disease than standard EUS criteria. CONCLUSION: EUS elastography is a promising modality that may complement standard EUS and help guide EUS-FNAB during staging of upper gastrointestinal tract cancer. © 2012 Baishideng. All rights reserved.
Hanlon P.,Forth Valley Royal Hospital |
Hanlon P.,University of Aberdeen |
Avenell A.,University of Aberdeen |
Aucott L.,University of Aberdeen |
And 2 more authors.
Arthritis Research and Therapy | Year: 2014
Introduction: Infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been suggested to contribute to the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We sought to determine whether prior infection with the virus occurs more frequently in patients with SLE compared to matched controls.Methods: We performed a systematic review and meta-analyses of studies that reported the prevalence of anti-EBV antibodies in the sera from cases of SLE and controls by searching Medline and Embase databases from 1966 to 2012, with no language restriction. Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios (OR) for the detection of anti-EBV antibodies were calculated, and meta-analyses conducted. Quality assessments were performed using a modified version of the Newcastle-Ottawa scale.Results: Twenty-five case-control studies were included. Quality assessment found most studies reported acceptable selection criteria but poor description of how cases and controls were recruited. There was a statistically significant higher seroprevalence of anti-viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgG (OR 2.08; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15 - 3.76, p = 0.007) but not anti-EBV-nuclear antigen1 (EBNA1) (OR 1.45; 95% CI 0.7 to 2.98, p = 0.32) in cases compared to controls. The meta-analyses for anti-early antigen (EA) /D IgG and anti-VCA IgA also showed significantly high ORs (4.5; 95% CI 3.00 to 11.06, p < 0.00001 and 5.05 (95% CI 1.95 - 13.13), p = 0.0009 respectively). However, funnel plot examination suggested publication bias.Conclusions: Overall, our findings support the hypothesis that infection with EBV predisposes to the development of SLE. However, publication bias cannot be excluded and the methodological conduct of studies could be improved, with regard to recruitment, matching and reporting of blinded laboratory analyses. © 2014 Hanlon et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Eastick K.,Scottish Bacterial Sexually Transmitted Infections Reference Laboratory |
Winter A.,Sandyford Sexual Health Services |
Jamdar S.,Forth Valley Royal Hospital
Eurosurveillance | Year: 2012
Three isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae have been identified in Scotland in 2010 and 2011, which lack sequences in the porA pseudogene commonly used as the target for confirmatory gonorrhoea polymerase chain reaction assays. Two isolates were clustered temporally and geographically and have the same sequence type and porA sequence. A similar strain was reported in Australia during early 2011. The other Scottish isolate was identified separately and is different in sequence type and porA sequence.
Hartley E.L.,Royal Alexandra Hospital |
Alcock R.,Forth Valley Royal Hospital
Prehospital and Disaster Medicine | Year: 2015
Introduction Prehospital anaesthesia in the United Kingdom (UK) is provided by Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS) and British Association for Immediate Care (BASICS), a road-based service. Muscle relaxation in rapid sequence induction (RSI) has been traditionally undertaken with the use of suxamethonium; however, rocuronium at higher doses has comparable intubating conditions with fewer side effects. Hypothesis/Problem The aim of this survey was to establish how many prehospital services in the UK are now using rocuronium as first line in RSI. Methods An online survey was constructed identifying choice of first-line muscle relaxant for RSI and emailed to lead clinicians for BASICS and HEMS services across the UK. If rocuronium was used, further questions regarding optimal dose, sugammadex, contraindications, and difference in intubating conditions were asked. Results A total of 29 full responses (93.5%) were obtained from 31 services contacted. Suxamethonium was used first line by 17 prehospital services (58.6%) and rocuronium by 12 (41.4%). In 11 services (91.7%), a dose of 1 mg/kg of rocuronium was used, and in one service, 1.2 mg/kg (8.3%) was used. No services using rocuronium carried sugammadex. In five services, slower relaxation time was found using rocuronium (41.7%), and in seven services, no difference in intubation conditions were noted (58.3%). Contraindications to rocuronium use included high probability of difficult airway and anaphylaxis. Conclusion Use of rocuronium as first-line muscle relaxant in prehospital RSI is increasing. Continued auditing of practice will ascertain which services have adopted change and identify if complications of failed intubation increase as a result. Hartley EL, Alcock R. Copyright © World Association for Disaster and Emergency Medicine 2015.
Micanovic C.,University of Edinburgh |
Pal S.,Forth Valley Royal Hospital |
Pal S.,Western General Hospital |
Pal S.,University of Edinburgh
Journal of Neural Transmission | Year: 2014
Early-onset dementia (EOD) is characterized by functionally impairing deterioration in memory, language, personality or visuospatial skills emerging under the age of 65. Cerebral functioning can be assessed by visual electroencephalography (EEG) interpretation. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the diagnostic utility of visual EEG in EOD focusing on Alzheimer's disease (AD), vascular dementia (VAD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Medline, Embase, Scopus, Web of Knowledge, and Google Scholar were systematically searched for studies where EEGs were included in the diagnostic evaluation of patients with dementia under the age of 65. Each paper was quality assessed and the results grouped according to dementia cause with a narrative summary. 4,157 papers were screened, 12 studies met the eligibility criteria with a total of 965 patients. An abnormal EEG was common to all causes of EOD. EEG abnormalities are more severe in early-onset AD patients. EEG severity grade is independent of disease duration. Slow wave activity is common to all dementias, but is most prominent in DLB. Frontal intermittent rhythmic delta activity could be considered as supportive for the diagnosis of DLB as can a Grand Total EEG score of over 9.5. EEG is usually normal in FTD. Focal changes can be seen in advanced VAD. Studies employed small patient groups, varying diagnostic criteria, and only a minority of patient diagnoses was pathologically confirmed. EEG may be useful as an adjunct in the diagnosis of DLB and AD. Further prospective well-powered studies are required to investigate diagnostic utility more robustly. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Wien.
Mozid A.M.,Essex Cardiothoracic Center |
Davies J.R.,Essex Cardiothoracic Center |
Spratt J.C.,Forth Valley Royal Hospital
Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions | Year: 2014
The hybrid approach to percutaneous treatment of chronic total occlusion (CTO) of coronary arteries requires both antegrade and retrograde skillsets. In the retrograde approach, wire externalization through the antegrade guide catheter often requires the use of a short donor guide catheter and a long (>150 cm) micro-catheter. Despite this there are occasions where the micro-catheter is unable to reach the anterograde guide catheter because of long collateral channels particularly when the retrograde limb involves a bypass graft. We report such a case where retrograde intervention was used to treat a right coronary artery (RCA) CTO in a patient with stable angina. The retrograde limb involved a saphenous vein graft to the native circumflex artery, which in turn provided collateral channels to the distal RCA. After performing reverse controlled anterograde and retrograde sub-intimal tracking (CART), the retrograde micro-catheter was only able to reach the mid RCA. To solve this, a Guideliner™ catheter was passed on the antegrade wire and successfully advanced over and "captured" the retrograde micro-catheter. Wire externalization was then completed and the RCA was subsequently stented with a good final angiographic result. This case illustrates a novel approach to completing wire externalization and provides a further indication for the role of the Guideliner™ catheter in treating CTOs. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Abram S.G.F.,Forth Valley Royal Hospital |
Murray J.B.,Forth Valley Royal Hospital
Injury | Year: 2015
The majority of displaced intracapsular fractures in our unit are managed with a Thompson hip hemiarthroplasty. Recent UK guidance from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence has, however, advised against the continued used of the Thompson implant in patients with hip fracture. The aim of this study was to review the outcomes and complications after Thompson hip hemiarthroplasty, including the impact of modern surgical approaches and cementing, whilst controlling for confounding factors. We reviewed the outcomes following Thompson hip hemiarthroplasty from a series of 807 cases performed between April 2008 and November 2013. Of these, 721 (89.3%) were cemented and 86 (10.7%) uncemented. A total of 575 (71.3%) procedures were performed in female patients. The anterolateral approach was performed in 753 (93.3%) and the posterior approach with enhanced soft tissue repair in 54 (6.7%). Overall, there were 23 dislocations (2.9%). Dislocation following the posterior approach occurred in 13.0% (seven of 54) in comparison to 2.1% (16 of 753) with the anterolateral approach (odds ratio (OR) 8.5 (95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8-26.3), p < 0.001). Patients were discharged home in 459 cases (56.9%), to a care home or other hospital in 273 cases (33.8%). Of the total number of patients, 75 died during their admission (9.3%), and 51.8% (338 of 653) returned home within 30 days. The 30-day mortality was 7.1% (57 cases) and the 1-year mortality was 16.6% (116 of 699). We recommend against the continued use of the posterior approach in hip hemiarthroplasty, as enhanced soft tissue repair did not reduce the dislocation rates to an acceptable level in this series utilising the Thompson implant. Our findings, however, demonstrate satisfactory results for patients treated with the Thompson hip hemiarthroplasty performed through an anterolateral approach. We suggest that the continued use of this implant in a carefully selected patient cohort is justifiable. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.