Fort Wayne Childrens Zoo

Fort Wayne, IN, United States

Fort Wayne Childrens Zoo

Fort Wayne, IN, United States

Time filter

Source Type

Smith J.A.,Fort Wayne Childrens Zoo | Papich M.G.,North Carolina State University | Russell G.,DuPont Company | Mitchell M.A.,Urbana University
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2010

Itraconazole is used to treat and prevent aspergillosis in captive penguin colonies. Although commercial formulations of itraconazole are available, compounding is sometimes performed to decrease cost or to provide a different concentration of the drug. Using a two-way crossover design, the pharmacokinetics of both a commercially available oral itraconazole solution and a compounded oral itraconazole solution were compared in six black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus). Each itraconazole formulation was administered orally in frozenthawed capelin at 7 mg/kg. Plasma itraconazole concentrations at time 0 (pretreatment), 20 and 40 min postdrug administration, and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 hr postdrug administration were determined using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Drug concentrations were analyzed using standard pharmacokinetic methods. Plasma clearance of the commercial itraconazole solution was more rapid than the clearance published for other species, possibly warranting more frequent dosing in black-footed penguins. Absorption of itraconazole, as determined by peak concentration and area under the curve, was significantly higher for the commercial formulation when compared to the compounded formulation, likely as a result of the presence of cyclodextrin, a carrier compound shown to improve oral absorption, in the commercial formulation. Extrapolating dosing regimens for compounded itraconazole formulations from regimens determined for commercial formulations warrants caution as a result of the significant differences in pharmacokinetics. Copyright 2010 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.


Smith J.A.,Fort Wayne Childrens Zoo | Kinsella J.M.,HelmWest Laboratory
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2011

Striped possums (Dactylopsila trivirgata) are small arboreal marsupials for which limited medical information is known. Mastophorus muris is a gastric spirurid nematode of rodents that uses insects as intermediate hosts. Three cases of gastric spiruridiasis caused by M. muris in captive striped possums are reported for the first time. Diagnosis was made by the presence of adult nematodes in regurgitant and at necropsy. Low numbers of nematode ova shed intermittently in possum feces made evaluation of treatment success difficult. No histopathologic abnormalities were identified in one case. Control of M. muris in captive possum colonies may be achieved by interrupting the life cycle of the parasite. Copyright 2011 by American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.


Tetzlaff S.J.,Indiana University - Purdue University Fort Wayne | Tetzlaff K.E.,Fort Wayne Childrens Zoo | Connors R.J.,II
Zoo Biology | Year: 2016

Providing appropriate environmental temperatures for captive ectotherms should be a husbandry priority. This can be especially challenging for ectotherms that are routinely transported, such as those used in education programs at zoos, because they are unable to thermoregulate while confined in non-temperature controlled, compact carriers. To assess if ectotherms used in the Fort Wayne Children's Zoo's outreach programs experienced appropriate transit temperatures during cold weather, we placed temperature loggers inside two sizes of transport carriers, half containing a heat source (bottle of hot water) and half not (control). While transport temperatures were appropriate for many ectotherms, this simple procedure failed to meet the thermal preferences of species with relatively low or high preferred temperatures such as the eastern tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) and the spiny-tailed lizard (Uromastyx maliensis), respectively. We found large heated carriers were warmer than small heated carriers, but the temperatures of control carriers did not differ. Despite considerable interspecific variation, large heated carriers provided higher thermal quality environments than both small heated and control carriers for all species except eastern tiger salamanders. We suggest further thermal monitoring of ectotherms during transit with the aim of identifying appropriate heat sources and developing efficient and effective transportation protocols. This could be achieved by modifying transport carriers so that animals are able to thermoregulate. Limiting or ceasing their use when appropriate temperatures cannot be provided may be necessary. Particular attention should be given to species with temperature preferences markedly different than the majority of others in a given collection. Zoo Biol. 35:339–345, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Burgdorf-Moisuk A.,San Diego Zoo | Pye G.W.,San Diego Zoo | Smith J.A.,Fort Wayne Childrens Zoo | Papendick R.,San Diego Zoo | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine | Year: 2012

At the San Diego Zoo (California, USA), 22 cases of megaesophagus were diagnosed in the parma wallaby (Macropus parma), yielding a prevalence of 21.1%. Parma wallabies often have no clinical signs until severe and chronic dilation of the esophagus is present. Clinical signs of advanced disease include weight loss, swelling of the cervical region, regurgitation without reswallowing of ingesta, short flight distance, depression, collapse, dyspnea, and sudden death. Retrospective and prospective studies at the San Diego Zoo and a multi-institutional survey in the United States were used to try to determine the cause of megaesophagus. The retrospective study did not identify an etiology. The prospective study revealed megaesophagus and severely delayed esophageal transit time in eight of eight animals. Myasthenia gravis, lead toxicosis, toxoplasmosis, and thyroid disease were eliminated as possible causes. Of 286 living and dead parma wallabies surveyed at other institutions, three cases of esophageal diverticulum and one case of megaesophagus were reported. The cause of megaesophagus in parma wallabies was not determined. © 2012 American Association of Zoo Veterinarians.


PubMed | Fort Wayne Childrens Zoo
Type: Clinical Trial | Journal: Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine : official publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians | Year: 2010

Itraconazole is used to treat and prevent aspergillosis in captive penguin colonies. Although commercial formulations of itraconazole are available, compounding is sometimes performed to decrease cost or to provide a different concentration of the drug. Using a two-way crossover design, the pharmacokinetics of both a commercially available oral itraconazole solution and a compounded oral itraconazole solution were compared in six black-footed penguins (Spheniscus demersus). Each itraconazole formulation was administered orally in frozen-thawed capelin at 7 mg/kg. Plasma itraconazole concentrations at time 0 (pretreatment), 20 and 40 min post-drug administration, and 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 hr post-drug administration were determined using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Drug concentrations were analyzed using standard pharmacokinetic methods. Plasma clearance of the commercial itraconazole solution was more rapid than the clearance published for other species, possibly warranting more frequent dosing in black-footed penguins. Absorption of itraconazole, as determined by peak concentration and area under the curve, was significantly higher for the commercial formulation when compared to the compounded formulation, likely as a result of the presence of cyclodextrin, a carrier compound shown to improve oral absorption, in the commercial formulation. Extrapolating dosing regimens for compounded itraconazole formulations from regimens determined for commercial formulations warrants caution as a result of the significant differences in pharmacokinetics.


PubMed | Fort Wayne Childrens Zoo and Indiana University - Purdue University Fort Wayne
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zoo biology | Year: 2016

Providing appropriate environmental temperatures for captive ectotherms should be a husbandry priority. This can be especially challenging for ectotherms that are routinely transported, such as those used in education programs at zoos, because they are unable to thermoregulate while confined in non-temperature controlled, compact carriers. To assess if ectotherms used in the Fort Wayne Childrens Zoos outreach programs experienced appropriate transit temperatures during cold weather, we placed temperature loggers inside two sizes of transport carriers, half containing a heat source (bottle of hot water) and half not (control). While transport temperatures were appropriate for many ectotherms, this simple procedure failed to meet the thermal preferences of species with relatively low or high preferred temperatures such as the eastern tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) and the spiny-tailed lizard (Uromastyx maliensis), respectively. We found large heated carriers were warmer than small heated carriers, but the temperatures of control carriers did not differ. Despite considerable interspecific variation, large heated carriers provided higher thermal quality environments than both small heated and control carriers for all species except eastern tiger salamanders. We suggest further thermal monitoring of ectotherms during transit with the aim of identifying appropriate heat sources and developing efficient and effective transportation protocols. This could be achieved by modifying transport carriers so that animals are able to thermoregulate. Limiting or ceasing their use when appropriate temperatures cannot be provided may be necessary. Particular attention should be given to species with temperature preferences markedly different than the majority of others in a given collection. Zoo Biol. 35:339-345, 2016. 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


PubMed | Fort Wayne Childrens Zoo
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of zoo and wildlife medicine : official publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians | Year: 2012

Striped possums (Dactylopsila trivirgata) are small arboreal marsupials for which limited medical information is known. Mastophorus muris is a gastric spirurid nematode of rodents that uses insects as intermediate hosts. Three cases of gastric spiruridiasis caused by M. muris in captive striped possums are reported for the first time. Diagnosis was made by the presence of adult nematodes in regurgitant and at necropsy. Low numbers of nematode ova shed intermittently in possum feces made evaluation of treatment success difficult. No histopathologic abnormalities were identified in one case. Control of M. muris in captive possum colonies may be achieved by interrupting the life cycle of the parasite.

Loading Fort Wayne Childrens Zoo collaborators
Loading Fort Wayne Childrens Zoo collaborators