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Durango, CO, United States

Fort Lewis College is a public liberal arts college located in Durango, Colorado.FLC is a member of the Council of Public Liberal Arts Colleges and is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission of the North Central Association of Colleges and Schools, with additional program-level accreditations in Accounting, Business Administration, Economics, and Marketing; Athletic Training; Chemistry; Engineering Physics; Music; and Teacher Education. The college offers 30 bachelor's degrees through its four academic units.Because of its unique origins as a military fort turned Indian boarding school turned state public school, Fort Lewis College also follows a 1911 mandate to provide a tuition-free education for qualified Native Americans. Fort Lewis College awards approximately 16 percent of the baccalaureate degrees earned by Native American students in the nation. In 2008, FLC was designated as one of six Native American-serving, non-tribal colleges by the U.S. Department of Education. Wikipedia.

Huggins E.L.,Fort Lewis College | Olsen T.L.,University of Auckland
Operations Research | Year: 2010

We consider a single-item, periodic-review inventory control problem in which discrete stochastic demand must be satisfied. When shortages occur, the unmet demand must be filled by some form of expediting; we allow a very general form for the cost structure of expediting. We explicitly consider the case where expedited production is allowed to produce up to a positive inventory level. We also consider the case where expedited production beyond the deficit is not permitted; an alternate application for this model is an inventory system with general lost sales costs. For the infinite-horizon discounted problem, we characterize the structure of the optimal stationary expediting policy and show that an (s, S) policy is optimal for regular production. For the special cases where the expediting cost function is concave or consists of a fixed and linear per-unit cost, we show that the optimal stationary expediting policy is generalized (s, S) or order-up-to, respectively. A numerical study allows us to gain insight into when expediting above and beyond the deficit is cost-effective. ©2010 INFORMS.

Francis C.D.,ent The National Evolutionary Synthesis Center | Kleist N.J.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Ortega C.P.,Fort Lewis College | Cruz A.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2012

Noise pollution is a novel, widespread environmental force that has recently been shown to alter the behaviour and distribution of birds and other vertebrates, yet whether noise has cumulative, community- level consequences by changing critical ecological services is unknown. Herein, we examined the effects of noise pollution on pollination and seed dispersal and seedling establishment within a study system that isolated the effects of noise from confounding stimuli common to human-altered landscapes. Using observations, vegetation surveys and pollen transfer and seed removal experiments, we found that effects of noise pollution can reverberate through communities by disrupting or enhancing these ecological services. Specifically, noise pollution indirectly increased artificial flower pollination by hummingbirds, but altered the community of animals that prey upon and disperse Pinus edulis seeds, potentially explaining reduced P. edulis seedling recruitment in noisy areas. Despite evidence that some ecological services, such as pollination, may benefit indirectly owing to noise, declines in seedling recruitment for key-dominant species such as P. edulis may have dramatic long-term effects on ecosystem structure and diversity. Because the extent of noise pollution is growing, this study emphasizes that investigators should evaluate the ecological consequences of noise alongside other human-induced environmental changes that are reshaping human-altered landscapes worldwide. © 2012 The Royal Society.

McKinney Jr. E.H.,Bowling Green State University | Yoos II C.J.,Fort Lewis College
MIS Quarterly: Management Information Systems | Year: 2010

Information is poorly defined in the Information Systems research literature, and is almost always unspecified, a reflexive, all-purpose but indiscriminant solution to an unbounded variety of problems. We present a taxonomy of four views-token, syntax, representation, and adaptation-to enable scholars and practitioners to specify their concept of information. This taxonomy is normative, but we also provide a background review of the etymology and chronology of information, and we sample uses of the term in current IS research. IS research will improve as the term information, via the taxonomy we contribute, is employed more explicitly and consistently.

Francis C.D.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Ortega C.P.,Fort Lewis College | Cruz A.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2011

Anthropogenic noise is prevalent across the globe and can exclude birds from otherwise suitable habitat and negatively influence fitness; however, the mechanisms responsible for species' responses to noise are not always clear. One effect of noise is a reduction in effective acoustic communication through acoustic masking, yet some urban songbirds may compensate for masking by noise through altering their songs. Whether this vocal flexibility accounts for species persistence in noisy areas is unknown. Here, we investigated the influence of noise on habitat use and vocal frequency in two suboscine flycatchers using a natural experiment that isolated effects of noise from confounding stimuli common to urban habitats. With increased noise exposure, grey flycatcher (Empidonax wrightii) occupancy declined, but vocal frequency did not change. By contrast, ash-throated flycatcher (Myiarchus cinerascens) occupancy was uninfluenced by noise, but individuals in areas with greater noise amplitudes vocalized at a higher frequency, although the increase (≈200 kHz) may only marginally improve communication and may represent a secondary effect from increased vocal amplitude. Even so, the different flycatcher behavioural responses suggest that signal change may help some species persist in noisy areas and prompt important questions regarding which species will cope with an increasingly noisy world. © 2010 The Royal Society.

Francis C.D.,National Evolutionary Synthesis Center | Ortega C.P.,Fort Lewis College | Cruz A.,University of Colorado at Boulder
Biology Letters | Year: 2011

Anthropogenic noise, now common to many landscapes, can impair acoustic communication for many species, yet some birds compensate for masking by noise by altering their songs. The phylogenetic distribution of these noisedependent signal adjustments is uncertain, and it is not known whether closely related species respond similarly to noise. Here, we investigated the influence of noise on habitat occupancy rates and vocal frequency in two congeneric vireos with similar song features. Noise exposure did not influence occupancy rates for either species, yet song features of both changed, albeit in different ways. With increases in noise levels, plumbeous vireos (Vireo plumbeus) sang shorter songs with higher minimum frequencies. By contrast, grey vireos (Vireo vicinior) sang longer songs with higher maximum frequencies. These findings support the notion that vocal plasticity may help some species occupy noisy areas, but because there were no commonalities among the signal changes exhibited by these closely related birds, it may be difficult to predict how diverse species may modify their signals in an increasingly noisy world. © 2011 The Royal Society.

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