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Scheffrahn R.H.,Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center | Austin J.W.,BASF | Chase J.A.,1147 Dogwood Forest Drive | Gillenwaters B.,Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center | And 2 more authors.
Florida Entomologist | Year: 2016

Ten years after its discovery, a survey of the exotic termite Nasutitermes corniger (Motschulsky) (Isoptera: Termitidae) on Abaco Island, The Bahamas, revealed an infested area of about 40 ha. The age and spread of the Abaco infestation is remarkably similar to the introduced N. corniger population in Dania Beach, Florida. Survey evidence corroborated that both dispersal at the Abaco location and lack of genetic variation (from its subsequent spread) of this established population point to a single introduction event fostered through a maritime introduction.

Ferris H.,University of California at Davis | Griffiths B.S.,Teagasc | Porazinska D.L.,Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center | Powers T.O.,University of Nebraska - Lincoln | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Nematology | Year: 2012

The purpose of this review is to highlight key developments in nematode ecology from its beginnings to where it stands today as a discipline within nematology. Emerging areas of research appear to be driven by crop production constraints, environmental health concerns, and advances in technology. In contrast to past ecological studies which mainly focused on management of plant-parasitic nematodes, current studies reflect differential sensitivity of nematode faunae. These differences, identified in both aquatic and terrestrial environments include response to stressors, environmental conditions, and management practices. Methodological advances will continue to influence the role nematodes have in addressing the nature of interactions between organisms, and of organisms with their environments. In particular, the C. elegans genetic model, nematode faunal analysis and nematode metagenetic analysis can be used by ecologists generally and not restricted to nematologists. © The Society of Nematologists 2012.

Scheffrahn R.H.,Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center | Carrijo T.F.,University of Sao Paulo | Krecek J.,Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center | Su N.-Y.,Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center | And 4 more authors.
Arthropod Systematics and Phylogeny | Year: 2015

The termite genus Coptotermes is both large and widespread but, as a whole, lacks robust diagnostic characters for morphological species identification. This has resulted in many taxonomic synonymies leading to the current pool of extant species a few of which are among the world's most destructive pests of wood. The New World diversity of Coptotermes is far less complicated, but has not been the subject of critical study. Using a large collection representative of endemic Coptotermes from the region, we compared their external morphology and their 16S genetic marker sequences to identify the three described American species: C. crassus, C. niger, and C. testaceus. We found no consistent differences among populations from Mexico to Bolivia, and therefore, we reassign the former two species as junior synonyms of C. testaceus. We also compared alates and soldiers of the three non-native species of Coptotermes: C. formosanus, C. gestroi, and C. sjostedti (soldiers only) to C. testaceus and provide diagnostic characters to identify all four current New World species. An updated distribution map is provided. © Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung, 2015.

Scheffrahn R.H.,Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center | Mullins A.J.,Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center | Krecek J.,Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center | Chase J.A.,Terminix International | And 10 more authors.
Sociobiology | Year: 2015

We compile, map, and discuss global elevational, latitudinal, thermal, and rainfall extremes of termite localities from literature sources and unpublished records. Rugitermes laticollis from Ecuador and Bolivia occurs at higher elevation (2700-3600 m) than any other termite species. Termites span the globe from 54.3°N (Zootermopsis angusticollis in British Columbia (B.C.), Canada) to 48.9°S (Porotermes quadricollis in Magdalena, Chile). The coldest locality supporting termites (Reticulitermes sp.) is at Churn Creek, B.C., where the mean annual temperature is 4°C. Lake Havasu City, Arizona, where Heterotermes aureus and Gnathamitermes perplexus occur, has the highest recorded temperature maximum (52°C) for a termite locality. Cryptotermes brevis and Neotermes chilensis are endemic to the Pacific Coast of Peru and Chile where rain is essentially absent. We further provide locality extremes for six termite families from six zoogeographical regions. In addition, the winged imago of Ru. laticollis is redescribed and the soldier is described for the first time.

Haller W.T.,University of Florida | Gettys L.A.,University of Florida | Gettys L.A.,Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center
Journal of Aquatic Plant Management | Year: 2013

Management of hygrophila, a submersed non-native aquatic weed, is particularly challenging because few registered aquatic herbicides effectively control the species, which most commonly occurs in slow to moderately flowing canals, streams and rivers. Seven experimental or newly registered aquatic herbicides were evaluated in 10-wk static exposure studies to determine their activity on hygrophila. Only two of the four ALS-inhibiting herbicides under evaluation reduced hygrophila biomass by 90% after treatment at experimental rates; these were penoxsulam and trifloxysulfuron, with EC90 values (EC90: the effective concentration that reduces growth by 90% compared to untreated controls) of 240 and 274 pg ai L-1, respectively. The EC90 values for the HPPD inhibitor topramezone and the synthetic auxin mimic quinclorac were 372 and 951 μg ai L-1, respectively. The ECgo values for all of these herbicides were several times higher than the current or likely maximum application concentrations on the labels. However, the EC90 value for the PPO inhibitor flumioxazin was 158 μg ai L-1 (95% CI 132-195 pg ai L-1). The ALS products tested in these experimentsimazamox, bispyribac, penoxsulam and trifloxysulfurondid not provide adequate (> 90%) control of hygrophila at maximum label rates, whereas the experimental herbicides topramezone and quinclorac had very slow activity and are unlikely to provide acceptable control of hygrophila under operational conditions. In contrast, flumioxazin, which was registered for aquatic use in Fall 2010 and has a maximum application concentration of 400 μg ai L-1, appears to offer effective control of hygrophila at less than half the maximum label rate, at least under static conditions.

Shaddox T.W.,University of Florida | Unruh J.B.,University of West Florida | Trenholm L.E.,University of Florida | McGroary P.C.,University of Florida | Cisar J.L.,Fort Lauderdale Research and Education Center
Crop Science | Year: 2016

The recommended N rates for St. Augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum secundatum [Walt.] Kuntze.) vary in Florida. This research, conducted in Fort Lauderdale, Citra, and Jay, FL, (2006– 2008), aimed to determine the minimum N rate necessary for acceptable St. Augustinegrass and to determine the influence of N and irrigation rate on NO3–N leaching. Urea was applied in Fort Lauderdale, Citra, and Jay at 98, 196, 294, and 588; 49, 196, 343, and 490; and 49, 98, 196, and 294 kg N ha-1 yr-1, respectively, based on best management practices. Irrigation was 2.5 mm d–1 and 13.0 mm three times weekly in Fort Lauderdale; 13 mm twice weekly and 26 mm wk–1 in Citra and Jay. In Fort Lauderdale and Jay, lower than recommended N rates mostly produced acceptable turfgrass. Applications of 196 kg N ha-1 (Fort Lauderdale) and 98 kg N ha-1 (Jay) were the lowest rates producing acceptable turf. In Citra, 65% more N was required for acceptable turf than the recommended minimum . Leaching from all N rates was similar, except when N rates exceeded recommendations or when turfgrass exhibited herbicide stress. The high irrigation rate doubled NO3–N leaching compared to the low rate in Fort Lauderdale; irrigation frequency had no influence on leaching in Citra or Jay. The predicted minimum N rate for acceptable turf in Fort Lauderdale was <98 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (lower than in Citra; more than in Jay). In stressed turf, additional N conferred little benefit to quality and increased leaching. © Crop Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

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