Winston-Salem, NC, United States
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Aghajanian C.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Blank S.V.,New York University | Goff B.A.,University of Washington | Judson P.L.,H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Oncology | Year: 2012

Purpose: This randomized, multicenter, blinded, placebo-controlled phase III trial tested the efficacy and safety of bevacizumab (BV) with gemcitabine and carboplatin (GC) compared with GC in platinum-sensitive recurrent ovarian, primary peritoneal, or fallopian tube cancer (ROC). Patients and Methods: Patients with platinum-sensitive ROC (recurrence ≥ 6 months after front-line platinum-based therapy) and measurable disease were randomly assigned to GC plus either BV or placebo (PL) for six to 10 cycles. BV or PL, respectively, was then continued until disease progression. The primary end point was progression-free survival (PFS) by RECIST; secondary end points were objective response rate, duration of response (DOR), overall survival, and safety. Results: Overall, 484 patients were randomly assigned. PFS for the BV arm was superior to that for the PL arm (hazard ratio [HR], 0.484; 95% CI, 0.388 to 0.605; log-rank P < .0001); median PFS was 12.4 v 8.4 months, respectively. The objective response rate (78.5% v 57.4%; P < .0001) and DOR (10.4 v 7.4 months; HR, 0.534; 95% CI, 0.408 to 0.698) were significantly improved with the addition of BV. No new safety concerns were noted. Grade 3 or higher hypertension (17.4% v <1%) and proteinuria (8.5% v < 1%) occurred more frequently in the BV arm. The rates of neutropenia and febrile neutropenia were similar in both arms. Two patients in the BV arm experienced GI perforation after study treatment discontinuation. Conclusion: GC plus BV followed by BV until progression resulted in a statistically significant improvement in PFS compared with GC plus PL in platinum-sensitive ROC. © 2012 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

Ganz P.A.,NRG Oncology | Ganz P.A.,University of California at Los Angeles | Cecchini R.S.,NRG Oncology | Cecchini R.S.,University of Pittsburgh | And 35 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2016

Background The NSABP B-35 trial compared 5 years of treatment with anastrozole versus tamoxifen for reducing subsequent occurrence of breast cancer in postmenopausal patients with ductal carcinoma in situ. This report assesses the effect of these drugs on quality of life and symptoms. Methods The study was done at 333 hospitals in North America. Postmenopausal women with hormone-positive ductal carcinoma in situ treated by lumpectomy with clear resection margins and whole breast irradiation were randomly assigned to receive either tamoxifen (20 mg/day) or anastrazole (1 mg/day) for 5 years, stratified by age (<60 years vs ≥60 years). Patients and investigators were masked to treatment allocation. Patients completed questionnaires at baseline and every 6 months thereafter for 6 years. The primary outcomes were SF-12 physical and mental health component scale scores, and vasomotor symptoms (as per the BCPT symptom scale). Secondary outcomes were vaginal symptoms and sexual functioning. Exploratory outcomes were musculoskeletal pain, bladder symptoms, gynaecological symptoms, cognitive symptoms, weight problems, vitality, and depression. We did the analyses by intention to treat, including patients who completed questionnaires at baseline and at least once during follow-up. This study is registered with, NCT00053898. Findings Between Jan 6, 2003, and June 15, 2006, 3104 patients were enrolled in the study, of whom 1193 were included in the quality-of-life substudy: 601 assigned to tamoxifen and 592 assigned to anastrozole. We detected no significant difference between treatment groups for: physical health scores (mean severity score 46·72 for tamoxifen vs 45·85 for anastrozole; p=0·20), mental health scores (52·38 vs 51·48; p=0·38), energy and fatigue (58·34 vs 57·54; p=0·86), or symptoms of depression (6·19 vs 6·39; p=0·46) over 5 years. Vasomotor symptoms (1·33 vs 1·17; p=0·011), difficulty with bladder control (0·96 vs 0·80; p=0·0002), and gynaecological symptoms (0·29 vs 0·18; p<0·0001) were significantly more severe in the tamoxifen group than in the anastrozole group. Musculoskeletal pain (1·50 vs 1·72; p=0·0006) and vaginal symptoms (0·76 vs 0·86; p=0·035) were significantly worse in the anastrozole group than in the tamoxifen group. Sexual functioning did not differ significantly between the two treatments (43·65 vs 45·29; p=0·56). Younger age was significantly associated with more severe vasomotor symptoms (mean severity score 1·45 for age <60 years vs 0·65 for age ≥60 years; p=0·0006), vaginal symptoms (0·98 vs 0·65; p<0·0001), weight problems (1·32 vs 1·02; p<0·0001), and gynaecological symptoms (0·26 vs 0·22; p=0·014). Interpretation Given the similar efficacy of tamoxifen and anastrozole for women older than age 60 years, decisions about treatment should be informed by the risk for serious adverse health effects and the symptoms associated with each drug. For women younger than 60 years old, treatment decisions might be driven by efficacy (favouring anastrozole); however, if the side-effects of anastrozole are intolerable, then switching to tamoxifen is a good alternative. Funding US National Cancer Institute, AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Benedict S.H.,University of Virginia | Yenice K.M.,University of Chicago | Followill D.,University of Houston | Galvin J.M.,Thomas Jefferson University | And 20 more authors.
Medical Physics | Year: 2010

Task Group 101 of the AAPM has prepared this report for medical physicists, clinicians, and therapists in order to outline the best practice guidelines for the external-beam radiation therapy technique referred to as stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). The task group report includes a review of the literature to identify reported clinical findings and expected outcomes for this treatment modality. Information is provided for establishing a SBRT program, including protocols, equipment, resources, and QA procedures. Additionally, suggestions for developing consistent documentation for prescribing, reporting, and recording SBRT treatment delivery is provided. © 2010 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

Margolese R.G.,NRG Oncology | Margolese R.G.,McGill University | Cecchini R.S.,NRG Oncology | Cecchini R.S.,University of Pittsburgh | And 31 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2016

Background Ductal carcinoma in situ is currently managed with excision, radiotherapy, and adjuvant hormone therapy, usually tamoxifen. We postulated that an aromatase inhibitor would be safer and more effective. We therefore undertook this trial to compare anastrozole versus tamoxifen in postmenopausal women with ductal carcinoma in situ undergoing lumpectomy plus radiotherapy. Methods The double-blind, randomised, phase 3 National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) B-35 trial was done in 333 participating NSABP centres in the USA and Canada. Postmenopausal women with hormone-positive ductal carcinoma in situ treated by lumpectomy with clear resection margins and whole-breast irradiation were enrolled and randomly assigned (1:1) to receive either oral tamoxifen 20 mg per day (with matching placebo in place of anastrozole) or oral anastrozole 1 mg per day (with matching placebo in place of tamoxifen) for 5 years. Randomisation was stratified by age (<60 vs ≥60 years) and patients and investigators were masked to treatment allocation. The primary outcome was breast cancer-free interval, defined as time from randomisation to any breast cancer event (local, regional, or distant recurrence, or contralateral breast cancer, invasive disease, or ductal carcinoma in situ), analysed by intention to treat. This study is registered with, number NCT00053898, and is complete. Findings Between Jan 1, 2003, and June 15, 2006, 3104 eligible patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to the two treatment groups (1552 to tamoxifen and 1552 to anastrozole). As of Feb 28, 2015, follow-up information was available for 3083 patients for overall survival and 3077 for all other disease-free endpoints, with median follow-up of 9·0 years (IQR 8·2-10·0). In total, 212 breast cancer-free interval events occurred: 122 in the tamoxifen group and 90 in the anastrozole group (HR 0·73 [95% CI 0·56-0·96], p=0·0234). A significant time-by-treatment interaction (p=0·0410) became evident later in the study. There was also a significant interaction between treatment and age group (p=0·0379), showing that anastrozole is superior only in women younger than 60 years of age. Adverse events did not differ between the groups, except for thrombosis or embolism - a known side-effect of tamoxifen - for which there were 17 grade 4 or worse events in the tamoxifen group versus four in the anastrozole group. Interpretation Compared with tamoxifen, anastrozole treatment provided a significant improvement in breast cancer-free interval, mainly in women younger than 60 years of age. This finding means that women will benefit from having a choice of effective agents for ductal carcinoma in situ. Funding US National Cancer Institute and AstraZeneca Pharmaceuticals LP. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Herold C.I.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Chadaram V.,Duke University | Peterson B.L.,Duke University | Marcom P.K.,Duke University | And 7 more authors.
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2011

Purpose: A phase II study of dasatinib, an inhibitor of multiple oncogenic tyrosine kinases including Src, was conducted to evaluate 16-week progression-free rate and tolerability in patients with previously treated metastatic breast cancer (MBC). Real-time assessment of potential tissue biomarkers of Src inhibition was used to optimize dosing. Experimental Design: Eligibility criteria required that patients have measurable MBC, biopsiable tumor, and unlimited prior therapies. For the analysis of change in protein biomarkers of Src inhibition, focal adhesion kinase, paxillin, and p-Src, patients underwent metastatic biopsies at baseline and 4 weeks. Patients who tolerated the starting dose of dasatinib (50 or 70 mg orally twice daily) for the first 28-day cycle, and displayed suboptimal Src inhibition, were escalated to a higher dose (70 or 100 mg). Results: The trial was closed early with 31 patients because of a statistical boundary that required at least 4 (13%) patients without disease progression to continue accrual. These 31 patients had a median of 2 prior lines of chemotherapy for MBC. The most notable toxicity was pleural effusions in 16 patients (52%). Twenty patients had evaluable metastatic biopsies. None of the tumors showed the predefined optimal level of Src inhibition at week 4. Conclusions: Single-agent dasatinib did not exhibit significant antitumor activity in patients with heavily pretreated MBC. There were no clinically meaningful decreases before and after dasatinib exposure between exploratory tissue biomarkers of Src inhibition which may be attributable to challenges in defining biomarker endpoints for multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors. ©2011 AACR.

Pokrzywinski R.,United Biosource Corporation | Secord A.A.,Duke University | Havrilesky L.J.,Duke University | Puls L.E.,Cancer Centers of the Carolinas | And 6 more authors.
Gynecologic Oncology | Year: 2011

Objectives: A phase II clinical trial compared docetaxel in combination with carboplatin to sequential single agent docetaxel followed by carboplatin for treatment of recurrent platinum-sensitive ovarian, peritoneal, or tubal cancer. This manuscript reports prospectively collected health-related quality of life (HRQL). Methods: Participants were randomized to either weekly docetaxel 30 mg/m 2/days 1 and 8 and carboplatin AUC 6/day 1 every 3 weeks (cDC) or docetaxel 30 mg/m 2/days 1 and 8, repeated every 3 weeks for 6 cycles followed by carboplatin AUC 6/day 1 every 3 weeks for 6 cycles or until disease progression (sDC). The primary HRQL endpoint was the trial outcome index (TOI) score of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Ovarian (FACT-O) instrument, and was assessed as an intent-to-treat analysis. The secondary HRQL endpoints included the FACT-O total score, the FACT-General, and several domain scores of the FACT-O instrument (physical well-being (PWB), social/family well-being (SWB), emotional well-being (EWB), functional well-being (FWB), and the ovarian cancer specific (OCS) module). The FACT-O was administered at randomization, prior to each of 6 cycles of treatment, and at study endpoint. Results: One hundred forty-eight participants were randomized to each group. Sequential docetaxel followed by carboplatin (sDC) was associated with significant improvements in the FACT-O TOI (p = 0.013), FACT-O total score (p = 0.033), and OCS (p = 0.029) compared to the combination docetaxel and carboplatin group (cDC). Conclusions: Sequential single agent docetaxel followed by carboplatin is associated with improved HRQL when compared to cDC. The improved progression-free survival observed with cDC should be weighed against lower quality of life during treatment. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Secord A.A.,Duke University | Berchuck A.,Duke University | Higgins R.V.,Carolinas Medical Center | Nycum L.R.,Forsyth Regional Cancer Center | And 6 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of combination (cDC) and sequential (sDC) weekly docetaxel and carboplatin in women with recurrent platinum-sensitive epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). METHODS: Participants were randomized to either weekly docetaxel 30 mg/m 2 on days 1 and 8 and carboplatin area under the curve (AUC) = 6 on day 1, every 3 weeks or docetaxel 30 mg/m 2 on days 1 and 8, every 3 weeks for 6 cycles followed by carboplatin AUC = 6 on day 1, every 3 weeks for 6 cycles or until disease progression. The primary endpoint was measurable progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS: Between January 2004 and March 2007, 150 participants were enrolled. The response rate was 55.4% and 43.2% for those treated with cDC and sDC, respectively. The median PFS was 13.7 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.9-16.8) for cDC and 8.4 months (95% CI, 7.1-11.0) for sDC. On the basis of an exploratory analysis, patients treated with sDC were at a 62% increased risk of disease progression compared to those treated with cDC (hazard ratio = 1.62; 95% CI, 1.08-2.45; P =.02). The median overall survival time was similar in both groups (33.2 and 30.1 months, P =.2). The incidence of grade 2 or 3 neurotoxicity and grade 3 or 4 neutropenia was higher with cDC than with sDC (11.7% vs 8.5%; 36.8% vs 11.3%). The sDC group demonstrated significant improvements in the Functional Assessment for Cancer Therapy-Ovarian, Quality of Life Trial Outcome Index scores compared with the combination cohort (P =.013). CONCLUSIONS: Both cDC and sDC regimens have activity in recurrent platinum-sensitive EOC with acceptable toxicity profiles. The cDC regimen may provide a PFS advantage over sDC. © 2011 American Cancer Society.

Anderson R.T.,Penn State College of Medicine | Kimmick G.G.,Duke University | McCoy T.P.,WFUSOM | Hopkins J.,Forsyth Regional Cancer Center | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Cancer Survivorship | Year: 2012

Objectives: This study aimed to determine the effect of a moderate, tailored exercise program on health-related quality of life, physical function, and arm volume in women receiving treatment for nonmetastatic breast cancer. Methods: Women who were within 4-12 weeks of surgery for stage I-III breast cancer were randomized to center-based exercise and lymphedema education intervention or patient education. Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast Cancer (FACT-B), 6-min walk, and arm volume were performed at 3-month intervals through 18 months. Repeated measures analysis of covariance was used to model the total meters walked over time, FACT-B scores, and arm volume. Models were adjusted for baseline measurement, baseline affected arm volume, number of nodes removed, age, self-reported symptoms, baseline SF-12 mental and physical component scores, visit, and treatment group. Results: Of the recruited 104 women, 82 completed all 18 months. Mean age (range) was 53.6 (32-82) years; 88% were Caucasian; 45% were employed full time; 44% were overweight; and 28% obese. Approximately, 46% had breast-conserving surgery; 79% had axillary node dissection; 59% received chemotherapy; and 64% received radiation. The intervention resulted in an average increase of 34.3 ml (SD = 12.8) versus patient education (p = 0.01). Changes in FACT-B scores and arm volumes were not significantly different. Conclusions: With this early exercise intervention after breast cancer diagnosis, a significant improvement was achieved in physical function, with no decline in health-related quality of life or detrimental effect on arm volume. Implications for cancer survivors: Starting a supervised exercise regimen that is tailored to an individual's strength and stamina within 3 months following breast cancer surgery appears safe and may hasten improvements in physical functioning. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Havrilesky L.J.,Duke University | Havrilesky L.J.,Duke Cancer Institute | Pokrzywinski R.,United Biosource Corporation | Revicki D.,United Biosource Corporation | And 9 more authors.
Cancer | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: In a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of patients with recurrent, platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer, the combination weekly docetaxel and carboplatin was associated a with progression-free survival (PFS) of 13.7 months compared with 8.4 months for sequential, single-agent docetaxel followed by carboplatin. The objective of the current study was to construct a cost-utility model to compare these 2 regimens with the incorporation of prospectively collected quality-of-life (QoL) data. METHODS: An RCT of concurrent docetaxel and carboplatin (cDC) versus docetaxel followed by carboplatin (sequential docetaxel and carboplatin [sDC]) was the basis for a Markov decision model, and the primary effectiveness outcome was PFS. Costs were estimated using US dollars based on Medicare reimbursements for chemotherapy regimens, bone marrow support, and management of adverse events. QoL data obtained using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General questionnaire were converted to utilities. Costs and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were reported in US dollars per quality-adjusted life year (QALY). Extensive 1-way sensitivity analyses and a Monte Carlo probabilistic sensitivity analysis were performed. RESULTS: The least expensive strategy was sDC, which cost an average of $20,381, compared with cDC, which cost an average of $25,122. cDC had an ICER of $25,239 per QALY compared with sDC. cDC remained cost-effective, with an ICER <$50,000 per QALY, over a range of costs and estimates. In Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis using a $50,000 per QALY willingness-to-pay threshold, cDC was either dominant or cost-effective with an ICER <$50,000 per QALY in 83% of simulations. CONCLUSIONS: Combined weekly cDC appeared to be cost-effective compared with sDC as treatment strategy for patients with platinum-sensitive ovarian cancer, even when accounting for slightly lower QoL during treatment. © 2011 American Cancer Society.

Hamilton E.,Duke University | Kimmick G.,Duke University | Hopkins J.,Forsyth Regional Cancer Center | Marcom P.K.,Duke University | And 4 more authors.
Clinical Breast Cancer | Year: 2013

Background Triple negative metastatic breast cancer can be difficult to treat with primarily cytotoxic options. Nab-paclitaxel has demonstrated improved PFS and tolerability compared with standard cremophor-solubilized paclitaxel; based on this, we examined the efficacy and safety of combining weekly nab-paclitaxel with carboplatin and bevacizumab in TNMBC. Patients and Methods In this phase II, multicenter trial, patients with first-line TNMBC received nab-paclitaxel (100 mg/m2) and carboplatin (area under the curve = 2) on days 1, 8, 15, and bevacizumab (10 mg/kg) on days 1 and 15 of a 28-day cycle. The primary end point was safety and tolerability and secondary end points included PFS, ORR, and CBR. PFS was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results Between July 16, 2007, and October 3, 2011, 34 patients were enrolled at 4 centers. Median age was 50.0 (range, 30-76) years and 77% (n = 26) of patients received previous adjuvant therapy. Median PFS was 9.2 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.8-25.1 months). The CBR was 94% (95% CI, 80%-99%), and ORR was 85% (95% CI, 69%-95%) for the combination. The regimen was well tolerated with the most common grade 3/4 adverse events being neutropenia (n = 18; 53%) and thrombocytopenia (n = 6; 18%), with other serous events including 1 grade 3 and 1 grade 4 thrombotic event and 1 febrile neutropenia. Conclusion The combination of nab-paclitaxel, bevacizumab, and carboplatin as first-line treatment for TNMBC was efficacious and well tolerated. The PFS, CBR, and ORR, and tolerability of the regimen, compares favorably with other standard first-line therapies. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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