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Nishikawa K.,Aichi Gakuin University | Duncan M.J.,Forsyth Institute
Journal of Bacteriology

Porphyromonas gingivalis, a Gram-negative oral anaerobe, is strongly associated with chronic adult periodontitis, and it utilizes FimA fimbriae to persistently colonize and evade host defenses in the periodontal crevice. The FimA-related gene cluster (the fim gene cluster) is positively regulated by the FimS-FimR two-component system. In this study, comparative analyses between fimbriate type strain ATCC 33277 and fimbria-deficient strain W83 revealed differences in their fimS loci, which encode FimS histidine kinase. Using a reciprocal gene exchange system, we established that FimS from W83 is malfunctional. Complementation analysis with chimeric fimS constructs revealed that W83 FimS has a defective kinase domain due to a truncated conserved G3 box motif that provides an ATP-binding pocket. The introduction of the functional fimS from 33277 restored the production, but not polymerization, of endogenous FimA subunits in W83. Further analyses with a fimA-exchanged W83 isogenic strain showed that even the fimbria-deficient W83 retains the ability to polymerize FimA from 33277, indicating the assembly of mature FimA by a primary structure-dependent mechanism. It also was shown that the substantial expression of 33277-type FimA fimbriae in the W83 derivative requires the introduction and expression of the functional 33277 fimS. These findings indicate that FimSR is the unique and universal regulatory system that activates the fim gene cluster in a fimA genotype-independent manner. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Zhu M.,Boston University | Van Dyke T.E.,Forsyth Institute | Gyurko R.,Boston University
FASEB Journal

Interactions between the immune and skeletal systems in inflammatory bone diseases are well appreciated, but the underlying molecular mechanisms that coordinate the resolution phase of inflammation and bone turnover have not been unveiled. Here we investigated the direct actions of the proresolution mediator resolvin E1 (RvE1) on bone-marrow-cell-derived osteoclasts in an in vitro murine model of osteoclast maturation and inflammatory bone resorption. Investigation of the actions of RvE1 treatment on the specific stages of osteoclast maturation revealed that RvE1 targeted late stages of osteoclast maturation to decrease osteoclast formation by 32.8%. Time-lapse vital microscopy and migration assays confirmed that membrane fusion of osteoclast precursors was inhibited. The osteoclast fusion protein DC-STAMP was specifically targeted by RvE1 receptor binding and was down-regulated by 65.4%. RvE1 did not affect the induction of the essential osteoclast transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) or its nuclear translocation; however, NFATc1 binding to the DC-STAMP promoter was significantly inhibited by 60.9% with RvE1 treatment as shown in electrophoresis mobility shift assay. Our findings suggest that proresolution mediators act directly on osteoclasts, in addition to down-regulation of inflammation, providing a novel mechanism for modulating osteoclast signaling in osteolytic inflammatory disease. © FASEB. Source

Lemon K.P.,Forsyth Institute | Lemon K.P.,Harvard University | Armitage G.C.,University of California at San Francisco | Relman D.A.,Stanford University | Fischbach M.A.,University of California at San Francisco
Science Translational Medicine

The connection between disease and the disruption of homeostatic interactions between the host and its microbiota is now well established. Drug developers and clinicians are starting to rely more heavily on therapies that directly target the microbiota and on the ecology of the microbiota to understand the outcomes of these treatments. The effects of those microbiota-targeted therapies that alter community composition range in scale from eliminating individual strains of a single species (for example, with antibacterial conjugate vaccines) to replacing the entire community with a new intact microbiota (for example, by fecal transplantation). Secondary infections linked to antibiotic use provide a cautionary tale of the unintended consequences of perturbing a microbial species network and highlight the need for new narrow-spectrum antibiotics with rapid companion diagnostics. Insights into microbial ecology will also benefit the development of probiotics, whose therapeutic prospects will depend on rigorous clinical testing. Future probiotics may take the form of a consortium of long-term community residents: "a fecal transplant in a capsule." The efficacy of microbiota-targeted therapies will need to be assessed using new diagnostic tools that measure community function rather than composition, including the temporal response of a microbial community to a defined perturbation such as an antibiotic or probiotic. Source

Rittling S.R.,Forsyth Institute
Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine

The secreted phosphorylated protein osteopontin (OPN) is expressed in a variety of tissues and bodily fluids, and is associated with pathologies including tissue injury, infection, autoimmune disease and cancer. Macrophages are ubiquitous, heterogeneous cells that mediate aspects of cell and tissue damage in all these pathologies. Here, the role of OPN in macrophage function is reviewed. OPN is expressed in macrophage cells in multiple pathologies, and the regulation of its expression in these cells has been described in vitro. The protein has been implicated in multiple functions of macrophages, including cytokine expression, expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, phagocytosis and migration. Indeed, the role of OPN in cells of the macrophage lineage might underlie its physiological role in many pathologies. However, there are numerous instances where the published literature is inconsistent, especially in terms of OPN function in vitro. Although the heterogeneity of OPN and its receptors, or of macrophages themselves, might underlie some of these inconsistencies, it is important to understand the role of OPN in macrophage biology in order to exploit its function therapeutically. Copyright © 2011 Cambridge University Press. Source

Razzaque M.S.,Forsyth Institute
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics

An adequate phosphate balance is essential for the maintenance of skeletal growth, development and function. It is also crucial in basic cellular functions, ranging from cell signaling to energy metabolism. Bone-derived fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), through activating FGF receptor system, plays an important role in the systemic regulation of phosphate metabolism. Under physiological conditions, FGF23 exerts serum phosphate-lowering effects by inducing urinary phosphate excretion. Increased FGF23 activities are associated with hypophosphatemic diseases (i.e., rickets/osteomalacia), while reduced FGF23 activity are linked to hyperphosphatemic diseases (i.e., tumoral calcinosis). Unlike most of the FGF family members, FGF23 needs klotho, as a co-factor to activate its receptor system. In vivo studies have convincingly demonstrated that, in absence of klotho, FGF23 is unable to influence systemic phosphate metabolism. Available information suggests that interactions of FGF23, klotho, and FGFRs regulate renal phosphate metabolism by suppressing sodium-phosphate transporters in the proximal tubular epithelial cells. This article briefly summarizes how bone-kidney communication contributes to physiologic phosphate balance. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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