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Von Michael N.,Forstliche Versuchs und Forschungsanstalt Baden Wurttemberg FVA | Christopher M.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Heinrich S.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Udo Hans S.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg
Naturschutz und Landschaftsplanung | Year: 2014

Agroforestry at the Edge – Using field scarps and lynchets for high-grade wood production Possibilities to combine the production of valuable timber trees with traditional methods of agricultural management have increasingly been discussed in recent years. These cultivation methods are commonly termed agroforestry systems. Usually, the approach underlying such agroforestry systems implies planting the timber trees directly onto the acreage of the fields. The farmers, however, seem reluctant to apply this method in practice. Until today, agroforestry systems have only been established rarely in Germany. The paper proposes an alternative approach that suggests to plant high-value trees at the margins of fields, or on scarps between fields. In contrast to traditional concepts of agroforestry systems, mechanized agricultural management is rarely affected by these marginal agroforestry systems. The paper describes the planting and the maintenance of value timber trees, as well as legal, ecological and economic aspects of the introduced management approach. It can be concluded that trees grown on field margins for the production of high-grade wood offer significant economic and ecological potential. © 2014, Verlag Eugen Ulmer. All rights reserved. Source


Berg S.,Forestry Research Institute of Sweden | Schweier J.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Bruchert F.,Forstliche Versuchs und Forschungsanstalt Baden Wurttemberg FVA | Lindner M.,European forest Institute | Valinger E.,Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2014

The forest sector is important for the German Federal State of Baden-Württemberg (BW) and the Västerbotten (VB) County in Sweden. Their forestry wood chains (FWCs) are of similar magnitude and supply forest industries. This study provides a regional comparison of the performance of FWCs from roundwood harvesting, including hauling, to mill gate concerning the factors that impact sustainability and assess different sustainability indicators for alternative supply chains, in particular fully mechanized chains in comparison to motor-manual operations. The harvest volumes are similar but operational conditions differ. Analysis of sustainability indicators demonstrated that the total costs for roundwood to industry are similar. Higher harvesting costs in BW are compensated for by lower transport costs to the mills. Employment per unit is higher in BW because of the high share of labour in felling. Due to smaller machinery and shorter transport distances in BW, energy use and greenhouse gas emissions per unit are lower than in VB. Areas for improvement are the technologies for logging in BW and the logistics of timber transport in VB. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Source


Lindner M.,European forest Institute | Werhahn-Mees W.,European forest Institute | Suominen T.,European forest Institute | Votter D.,European forest Institute | And 9 more authors.
European Journal of Forest Research | Year: 2012

Within the EFORWOOD project, new methodological approaches to assess the sustainability impacts of forestry-wood chains (FWC) were developed by using indicators of environmental, social and economic relevance. This paper introduces and discusses the developed approach and the two main products developed in the EFORWOOD project: the Database Client and the Tool for Sustainability Impact Assessment (ToSIA), which hold, calculate and integrate the extensive information and data collected. Sustainability impact assessment (SIA) of FWCs is based on measuring and analysing environmental, economic and social indicators for all of the production processes along the value chain. The adoption of the method varies between applications and depends on the specification of the FWC in the assessment and what questions are studied. ToSIA is very flexible and can apply forest-, product-, industry- and consumer-defined perspectives. Each perspective influences the focus of the analysis and affects system boundaries. ToSIA can assess forest value chains in different geographical regions covering local, regional, national and up to the continental scale. Potential issues and scenarios can be analysed with the tool including, for example, the impacts of different forest policies on the sustainability of an FWC. This paper presents how ToSIA can be applied to solve such diverse problems and underlines this with examples from different case studies. Differences in chain set-up, system boundaries and data requirements are highlighted and experiences with the implementation of the sustainability impact assessment methods are discussed. The EFORWOOD case studies offer valuable reference data for future sustainability assessments. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source


Seho M.,Forstliche Versuchs und Forschungsanstalt Baden Wurttemberg FVA | Bruchert F.,Forstliche Versuchs und Forschungsanstalt Baden Wurttemberg FVA | Kohnle U.,Forstliche Versuchs und Forschungsanstalt Baden Wurttemberg FVA
Forstarchiv | Year: 2013

In this paper the potential of using computer tomography imagery was evaluated as data source for forest-based research. The aim of this study is the validation of data resulting from the high-resolution computer tomography (CT). The estimates of height analysis, branch, and bark characteristics from computer tomography images were compared with traditional field measurement methods. Using Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) and black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) for exemplifying purposes, CT-imagery was shown to allow for accurate measurement of several stem and branch parameters, as well as for whorl detection and subsequent height analysis. Compared to field measurement techniques, the accuracy of CT-imagery-derived measurements proved either comparable (stem/branch diameters, height) or superior (bark thickness, height analysis). Thus, branch parameter estimates from CT-imagery allowed for easy calculation of branch insertion angle without destroying the stem. Furthermore, whorl identification based on CT-imagery allowed for height analysis in annual resolution even along stem sections where field techniques are not applicable due to unclear or missing external whorl characteristics. Our study demonstrates the principal potential of CT-imagery as a basis for estimating parameters relevant for growth analysis. © DLV GmbH. Source


Wehrhausen M.,Forstliche Versuchs und Forschungsanstalt Baden Wurttemberg FVA | Laudon N.,Forstliche Versuchs und Forschungsanstalt Baden Wurttemberg FVA | Bruchert F.,Forstliche Versuchs und Forschungsanstalt Baden Wurttemberg FVA | Sauter U.H.,Forstliche Versuchs und Forschungsanstalt Baden Wurttemberg FVA
Forest Products Journal | Year: 2012

Cracks in softwood are an important defect that reduces the quality of sawn timber for construction purposes. As with all other quality reducing features in wood, it is of significant interest to know about their number and position in a log before sawing. On one hand, cracks are relatively easy to distinguish from wood by means of computer tomographic (CT) scanning owing to the large differences in density. The fact that they tend to be irregular and very thin, however, complicates detection. This study describes a method for automated crack detection in single CT slices and evaluates its precision in terms of both detection rate and length measurement. Twenty tree discs were sampled from spruce (Picea abies) and silver fir (Abies alba) logs and scanned with a computer tomograph. The results of the automated detection are compared with data from manual reference measurements on the physical discs and with data from visual inspection of the CT images. Under optimal conditions, the detection rate is 84 percent. The average underestimation of crack length is 18 mm for heart checks and 15 mm for radial checks. There is no sharp threshold of crack width that limits the detection. The overall precision of this crack detection method can be seen as sufficient for practical purposes, when the standard errors in length measurement are considered. ©Forest Products Society 2012. Source

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