Zotov N.,Jülich Research Center |
Feydt J.,Forschungszentrum CAESAR |
Savan A.,Ruhr University Bochum |
Ludwig A.,Ruhr University Bochum |
Von Borany J.,Helmholtz Center Dresden
Advanced Engineering Materials | Year: 2011
Thermal annealing of Fe/Pt multilayers (ML) is reported to reduce significantly the formation temperature of FePt hard magnetic thin films. The transformation mechanisms of [Fe 1.38 nm/Pt 2.24 nm]50 ML, prepared by magnetron sputtering, is investigated in the present communication by high temperature X-ray reflectivity using synchrotron radiation. Complete degradation of the ML periodic structure is observed at about 610 K. The variation with annealing temperature of the intensity of the first Bragg peak, the correlated vertical roughness, and the lateral correlation length of the ML show that the ML transform in two stages with a cross-over temperature of about 515 ± 15 K. This behavior cannot be simply explained by the change in the measured interdiffusion coefficient below and above the cross-over temperature, suggesting the formation of FePt nanograins along the interfaces. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Goetz A.J.,LMU |
Steinmetz D.R.,Max Planck Institute Für Eisenforschung |
Griesshaber E.,LMU |
Zaefferer S.,Max Planck Institute Für Eisenforschung |
And 5 more authors.
Acta Biomaterialia | Year: 2011
We report a newly discovered dense microstructure of dendrite-like biocalcite that is formed by marine organisms. High spatial resolution electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was carried out under specific analytical conditions (15 and 10 kV) on the primary layer of the modern brachiopod Gryphus vitreus. The primary layer of modern brachiopods, previously termed nanocrystalline, is formed by an array of concave/convex calcite grains with interdigitated recesses and protrusions of abutting crystals without any cavities in or between the dendrites. The interface topology of this structure ranges from a few tens of nanometres to tens of micrometres, giving a nanoscale structure to the material fabric. The dendritic grains show a spread of crystallographic orientation of several degrees and can thus be referred to as mesocrystals. Individual dendritic mesocrystals reach sizes in one dimension larger than 20 μm. The preferred crystallographic orientation is similar in the primary and adjacent fibrous shell layers, even though these two layers show completely different crystal morphologies and grain boundary topologies. This observation indicates that two separate control mechanisms are active when the primary and the fibrous shell layers are formed. We propose a growth model for the interdigitated dendritic calcite grain structure based on a precursor of vesicles filled with amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC). © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hamann S.,Ruhr University Bochum |
Gruner M.E.,University of Duisburg - Essen |
Irsen S.,Forschungszentrum Caesar |
Buschbeck J.,Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research |
And 10 more authors.
Acta Materialia | Year: 2010
A new ferromagnetic shape memory thin film system, Fe-Pd-Cu, was developed using ab initio calculations, combinatorial fabrication and high-throughput experimentation methods. Reversible martensitic transformations are found in extended compositional regions, which have increased fcc-fct transformation temperatures in comparison to previously published results. High resolution transmission electron microscopy verified the existence of a homogeneous ternary phase without precipitates. Curie temperature, saturation polarization and orbital magnetism are only moderately decreased by alloying with nonmagnetic Cu. Compared to the binary system; enhanced Invar-type thermal expansion anomalies in terms of an increased volume magnetostriction are predicted. Complementary experiments on splat-fabricated bulk Fe-Pd-Cu samples showed an enhanced stability of the disordered transforming Fe70Pd30 phase against decomposition. From the comparison of bulk and thin film results, it can be inferred that, for ternary systems, the Fe content, rather than the valence electron concentration, should be regarded as the decisive factor determining the fcc-fct transformation temperature. © 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.