Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut Und Naturmuseum Frankfurt

Frankfurt am Main, Germany

Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut Und Naturmuseum Frankfurt

Frankfurt am Main, Germany
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Davydov E.A.,Altai State University | Printzen C.,Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Frankfurt
Bryologist | Year: 2012

Based on field trips between 19952007, rare and noteworthy lichens from the Altai Mountains in southern Siberia are described. Bacidia zerovii Oxner is recognized as a synonym of Scoliciosporum chlorococcum (Graewe ex Stenh.) Vězda. Lecidea brenneri H. Magn. is lectotypified and synonymized with Lecania cyrtellina (Nyl.) Sandst. The new combination Puttea exsequens (Nyl.) Printzen & Davydov is introduced for Lecidea exsequens Nyl. and is the oldest validly published name for Lecidea gibberosa sensu Th. Fr. non Ach. Of the 33 species reported here, five species Lecania croatica, Lecanora pseudosarcopidoides, Lecidea, L. sanguineoatra, Puttea exsequens and Rimularia fuscosora are new for Asia and Russia, Buellia arborea is new to Asia, Lecanora farinaria is new to Russia, Caloplaca herbidella, C. sorocarpa, Fellhanera subtilis, Lecidea pullata, and Pertusaria coccodes are new to Siberia. Several species are reported as new to West or South Siberia. Most corticolous lichen species display a more or less circumboreal distribution and also occur in Europe and North America. © 2012 by The American Bryological and Lichenological Society, Inc.

Manegold A.,Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Frankfurt | Topfer T.,Senckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen Dresden
Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research | Year: 2013

The cladistic analysis of 69 morphological and behavioural characters supports the recent DNA sequence-based hypothesis that Hemicircus forms the sister group of all the remaining true woodpeckers (Picinae), but also indicates a sister-group relationship between Dendropicini and Malarpicini, which challenges the results of previous analyses. The present phylogeny further allows a more detailed reconstruction of the stepwise evolution of adaptations for drilling, tapping and climbing up head first on vertical surfaces. The last common ancestor of woodpeckers (Picidae) was neither capable of excavating nest cavities by drilling with its beak nor of climbing up tree trunks. First adaptations for drilling such as reinforced rhamphotheca, frontal overhang and proc. dorsalis pterygoidei evolved in the ancestral lineage of piculets (Picumninae) and true woodpeckers (Picinae s.l.). Further adaptations for drilling and tapping are an enlarged condylus lateralis of the quadrate and fused cotylae mediales and laterales of the lower jaw, but these characters evolved in the ancestral lineage of Picinae s. str. and are primarily lacking in Hemicircus. The inner rectrix pairs became stiffened, and the lamina pygostyli was enlarged in the ancestral lineage of true woodpeckers (Hemicircus + Picinae s. str.). These features can be regarded as first adaptations for climbing up head first and were retained by Hemicircus. In the ancestral lineage of Picinae s. str., however, the tail feathers became further transformed into a specialized support tail, the discus pygostyli became greatly enlarged, and the ectropodactyl toe arrangement evolved. The last mentioned characters might have been the prerequisites for the enormous increase in body size in different lineages of Picinae s. str., namely Megapicini such as Campephilus and Malarpicini such as Dryocopus and Mulleripicus. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Ruprecht U.,University of Salzburg | Brunauer G.,University of Salzburg | Printzen C.,Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Frankfurt
Lichenologist | Year: 2012

As part of a comprehensive study on lecideoid lichens in Antarctica, we investigated the photobiont diversity and abundance in 119 specimens of lecideoid lichens from 11 localities in the continental and maritime Antarctic. A phylogeny of these photobiont ITS sequences, including samples from arctic, alpine and temperate lowland regions, reveals the presence of five major Trebouxia clades in Antarctic lecideoid lichens. Two clades are formed by members of the T. jamesii and T. impressa aggregates but for all other clades no close match to any known Trebouxia species could be found in sequence databases. One genetically uniform and well-supported Trebouxia clade was found only in the climatically unique cold desert regions of the Antarctic (preliminarily called Trebouxia sp.URa1), where it is preferentially associated with the highly adapted Antarctic endemic lichen Lecidea cancriformis. Levels of genetic photobiont diversity differ slightly, but insignificantly among ecological regions of the Antarctic and do not decrease towards regions with more unfavourable ecological conditions. The genetic diversity of photobionts varies among mycobiont species. Most pairwise comparisons reveal that these differences are insignificant, probably due to the small sample size for most species. The Antarctic lichens studied here are predominantly not specific for a single photobiont species or lineage, except for Lecidella greenii and L. siplei. These two species are preferably associated with Trebouxia sp. URa2, although in the sampling areas of both species, a pool of several other photobionts is available. Lecidea cancriformis associates with the highest diversity of photobionts followed by L. andersonii. Copyright © British Lichen Society 2012.

Hezel D.C.,Natural History Museum in London | Palme H.,Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Frankfurt
Earth and Planetary Science Letters | Year: 2010

Chondrules and matrix are the two major components of carbonaceous chondrites (CC). The Mg/Si ratios of chondrules and matrices in CV, CR, CO and CM chondrites are complementary: chondrules have super CI chondritic and matrices sub CI chondritic Mg/Si ratios. Bulk samples of CC have always CI chondritic Mg/Si ratios, indicating that chondrules and matrix are chemically connected. Such a chemical relationship places important constraints on the chondrule formation process and the chemical evolution of the protoplanetary disk. The chondrule matrix complementarity excludes separate origins and later mixing of chondrules and matrix. Redistribution of Fe and Mg between chondrules and matrix or leaching of Si from chondrule mesostasis into the matrix on the parent body can be excluded. Both, chondrules and matrix must have formed from the same chemical reservoir. The Mg/Si complementarity was probably established in the nebula before parent body accretion by the extraction of a Mg-rich component from a CI chondritic reservoir. This component then served as precursor for chondrules, leaving behind Mg-depleted material, the parent material of matrix. This interpretation excludes all chondrule forming processes that involve a separate origin for chondrules and matrix, such as, for example, the X-wind model. The existence of this complementarity in CV, CR, CO and CM chondrites also suggests that chondrules and matrix are formed by similar processes. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Gereke M.,Hopfengarten 6 | Schindler E.,Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Frankfurt
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology | Year: 2012

Features which may be called "Time-Specific Facies" (TSF) can be linked to global bioevents - or better biological crises. The Late Devonian Kellwasser (KW) Event is a classic example of such a crisis. This geologically short-lived "event" shows recurring patterns within the critical time interval, including patterns that are often minute. Not only do the well-known Lower and Upper KW Horizons yield specific features, but also the adjacent sedimentary rocks show characteristic markers. Such observations were first made in facies settings of submarine rises with preferably carbonate rocks (mainly cephalopod limestones), but these features can now also be traced into basinal sections characterized by fine-grained pelitic rocks. These beds and markers are crossing traditional facies borders at exactly the same time, making them perfect examples of TSF. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Ruf I.,University of Bonn | Ruf I.,Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Frankfurt
Anatomical Record | Year: 2014

In order to elucidate the systematic relevance of the turbinal skeleton in Lagomorpha the ethmoidal regions of 6 ochotonid, 21 leporid, and 2 outgroup species (Sciurus vulgaris, Tupaia sp.) species were investigated by high-resolution computed tomography (μCT). Number and shape of turbinals correspond to major clades and to several genera. All Lagomorpha under study have a deeply excavated nasoturbinal that is continuous with the lamina semicircularis; a feature likely to be an autapomorphy of lagomorphs. In particular, the olfactory turbinals (frontoturbinals, ethmoturbinals, and interturbinals) provide new systematic information. The plesiomorphic lagomorph pattern comprises two frontoturbinals, three ethmoturbinals, and one interturbinal between ethmoturbinal I and II. Ochotonidae are derived from the lagomorph goundplan by loss of ethmoturbinal III; an interturbinal between the two frontoturbinals is an autapomorphy of Leporidae. Pronolagus is apomorphic in having a very slender first ethmoturbinal, but shows a puzzling pattern in decreasing the number of turbinals. Pronolagus rupestris and Romerolagus diazi have independently reduced their turbinals to just two fronto- and two ethmoturbinals, which is the lowest number among the sampled lagomorphs. In contrast, the more derived leporid genera under study (Oryctolagus, Caprolagus, Sylvilagus, and Lepus) show a tendency to increase the number of turbinals, either by developing an ethmoturbinal IV (Caprolagus hispidus, Lepus arcticus) or by additional interturbinals. Intraspecific variation was investigated in Ochotona alpina, Oryctolagus cuniculus, and Lepus europaeus and is restricted to additional interturbinals in the frontoturbinal recess of the two leporids. Anat Rec, 297:2031-2046, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Schindler E.,Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Frankfurt | Wehrmann A.,Senckenberg Institute
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology | Year: 2011

On the southern flanks of the Tindouf Basin (Western Sahara) reefal complexes of various sizes were developed, mostly of Givetian age but possibly reaching into the early Frasnian. Surrounding sedimentary rocks were dominantly sandstones, siltstones and marls. The larger reef complexes in the northeastern part of Western Sahara show three reef cycles within the Givetian and lowermost Frasnian, interrupted by marly sedimentation. Farther to the west, more isolated reef structures in open shelf settings occur often showing smaller dimensions.The present study focuses on one of these western reefal build-ups. Besides large-scale reefs dominated by stromatoporoids (NE), several smaller bioherms have been investigated, such as the Gwirat Al Hyssan reef-mound near Smara. Initial reef growth was of late Givetian age as indicated by corals (e.g. Heliolites). The main reef builders were the corals Alveolites, Thamnopora, Aulopora, Frechastraea, Phillipsastrea, and, to a lesser degree, Heliolites, Scoliopora, and Roemerolites. Stromatoporoids also contributed, but were less frequent. Chaetetids (e.g. Rhaphidopora) acted as pioneer stabilizers on bare sediment surfaces. Preservation in life position was frequently observed in both groups of organisms. Crinoids are not rare, but only present as debris. In distinct areas of the reef (depressions) concentrations of brachiopods and small solitary corals occur. The reef-mound has a present elevation of 17. m and measures about 370. m in diameter. Vertical as well as horizontal zonation could be recognized in detail. The initial reef growth started on a submarine shoal of siliciclastic sediments, containing various trace fossils and sedimentary structures such as cross-bedding and wave ripples; interference ripples suggest generation in very shallow water. The initial reef-building organisms were encrusting chaetetids, followed by platy Frechastraea colonies; thamnoporids were also present. The overlying reef limestones consist of different corals and, to a minor degree, stromatoporoids. The latter are sparsely distributed vertically as well as horizontally, depending on their position within the reef. Growth forms are more robust (bulbous) towards higher hydrodynamic conditions at the southern reef front. Reef growth is interrupted by debris limestones of thamnoporid and crinoid bioclasts, intercalated with detrital platy stromatoporoids. Generally, the debris was not transported over long distances, as demonstrated by the presence of relatively large fragments. This 'debris phase' (early Frasnian) is overlain by the last documented stage in reef development represented by medium- to thin-bedded coral-rich limestones. The onset of the carbonate production of the Gwirat Al Hyssan reef-mound is maybe related to the global transgressive Givetian-Frasnian Boundary Event. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Brett C.E.,University of Cincinnati | Zambito Iv J.J.,University of Cincinnati | Hunda B.R.,Cincinnati Museum Center | Schindler E.,Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Frankfurt
Palaios | Year: 2012

Spectacular trilobite Lagersttten occur in distinctive offshore calcareous mudstone facies through the Late Ordovician to Devonian, and reflect a combination of mass mortality or molting and burial, coupled with early diagenetic enhancement. Evidence indicates two distinct modes of burial, Type I and II assemblages, which show evidence for burial without or with seafloor disturbance, respectively. Type I assemblages suggest rapid (hours to days), but not instantaneous burial, without bottom disruption, enabling preservation of in situ behavior, including mass aggregations and molt ensembles. Most occurrences contain bedding planes in which trilobites exhibit incipient disarticulation. These assemblages were buried by cascades of flocculated sediment from hypopycnal, detached flows. Type II assemblages show well-articulated, enrolled, semi-enrolled, and outstretched trilobites in varied orientations relative to bedding. In such cases, bottom flows and seafloor disruption by storm or seismic disturbances in shallow waters suspended large amounts of flocculated muds as viscous slurries, which developed into hyperpycnal flows that entrained carcasses of trilobites and other organisms. In many cases, both Type I and II obrution was followed by additional sedimentation, geochemical zones moved upward through the sediment column, and there was little tendency to form diagenetic overprints. Alternatively, if burial was followed by an interval of sediment starvation, the sediments were bioturbated and very early diagenetic mineralization was superimposed, first, in rare cases, as mineralized soft parts in entombed carcasses, and later as pyritization of burrow linings. Development of the concretionary layers required more prolonged periods of stability of the sulfate reduction zone. Cementation of sediment shielded organism bodies from most or all effects of compaction. Thus, ironically, the best preservation of delicate remains required rapid burial, associated with mass mortality, and very low rates of background sedimentation following the event. © 2012 SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

Schindler E.,Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Frankfurt
Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology | Year: 2012

The concept of "Time-Specific Facies" (TSF) was proposed in the 1980s by an outstanding palaeontologist/geologist: Otto Heinrich Walliser. His idea of comparing similar developments, which span a certain period of time within the geologic record, offers great potential for age assignment, long-range correlation, studies of palaeoenvironments, and other applications. By not tying his novel idea to a restrictive definition, he enabled present and future scientists to use the term in a relatively broad sense. As with the entire volume, this article pays tribute to this great scientist. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Mayr G.,Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum Frankfurt
Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments | Year: 2013

The avian taxon Parvigruidae includes poorly known early Oligocene core Gruiformes, which were considered to be most closely related to either Ralloidea (rails and allies) or Gruoidea (cranes and allies) by earlier authors. Previous fossils of these birds were found in southern France (Parvigrus pohli) and eastern Germany (Rupelrallus saxoniensis). Here, I describe remains of two parvigruid species from the Rupelian stratotype (Boom clay) in Belgium. The smaller of these are tentatively assigned to P. pohli, the larger specimens agree with R. saxoniensis in size but differ in some morphological details and are assigned to a new species, ?Rupelrallus belgicus, sp. nov. The new fossils show that parvigruids were an important part of the early Oligocene European avifauna and had a wide distribution across the continent. They further allow recognition of previously unknown osteological features, especially of the humerus and hypotarsus, which substantiate sister group relationship between Parvigruidae and crown group Gruoidea. © 2012 Senckenberg Gesellschaft für Naturforschung and Springer.

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