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Engels M.,Forschungsinstitut fur Anorganische Werkstoffe Glas Keramik GmbH
CFI Ceramic Forum International | Year: 2013

The market still lacks an objective basis for the testing and assessment of cleanability, one of the most important functional characteristics of glazed and unglazed ceramic floor tiles. In response to an increasing number of customer enquiries, the FGK Institute for Inorganic Materials -Glass/Ceramics /DE has developed an application-oriented method for assessing both the cleanability and dirt sensitivity of tile surfaces in field-relevant conditions. In addition, the method provides the possibility to test the effectiveness of different combinations of cleaning equipment and cleaning agents in the laboratory. The development and validation of the method and the application of microscopic and topographic analysis for investigating the causes of the different behaviour are presented with reference to examples. Source

Sousa F.J.P.,University of Kaiserslautern | De Souza R.G.,Federal University of Santa Catarina | Engels M.,Forschungsinstitut fur Anorganische Werkstoffe Glas Keramik GmbH
InterCeram: International Ceramic Review | Year: 2010

This work attempts to establish a quantitative criterion for estimating the most recommended range of polishing level to be reached by the polishing process of ceramic floor tiles considering a balance of glossiness and slip resistance. To this end, a direct characterization of these both properties was carried out, including a statistical comparison between experimental results extracted from the same polished tile. Firstly, the spatial distribution of gloss was measured considering two different angles of incidence, ? = 20° and ? = 60°. The slip resistance was represented quantitatively by the coefficient of friction which in turn was measured over the whole polished surface. These measurements were carried out by a friction tester equipped with two different glider materials, Neolite and SBR rubber, separately. After comparing the results of glossiness and slipperiness, some perceptible correlation were verified to occur. Source

Matthies K.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Bitter H.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Deobald N.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Heinle M.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Water Practice and Technology | Year: 2015

People in rural developing areas often depend on point-of-use water treatment for safe drinking water. A very popular and efficient technology for this is the use of ceramic filters, as promoted by the non-governmental organization Potters for Peace. These filters are already used in many countries worldwide, including Indonesia, where they are manufactured in Bandung, Java by Pelita Indonesia. The filters are made of local clay and combustible material, and coated with silver after firing. However, data available on them are very scarce. The structure, composition, and physico-chemical and microbiological performance of the filter were examined. Pore sizes mostly ranged from 1 to 40 µm and flow rate was about 1.3 L/h. Silver, arsenic and manganese were leaching from the filter in remarkable concentrations. While values for silver were about 0.01–0.02 mg/L, manganese was washed out after a few liters and leaching of arsenic fell below 0.02 mg/L after filtering some liters. With a log reduction of 3–5, efficiency in bacteria reduction was satisfactory in contrast to virus removal which was not sufficient according to the World Health Organization guidelines, with a log reduction below 1. © IWA Publishing 2015. Source

Sanger S.,Forschungsinstitut fur Anorganische Werkstoffe Glas Keramik GmbH | Link S.,Forschungsinstitut fur Anorganische Werkstoffe Glas Keramik GmbH
Keramische Zeitschrift | Year: 2012

The present work deals with the relationships of physical material properties and their effect on the frost resistance (FB) of architectural ceramics. By using them in outdoor areas, frost damage frequently arises, despite standard-compliant product features and accurate installation. Pore water has proven to start freezing below -4.5 °C. Hence, a reliable qualification of frost resistance by using a valid test standard is currently not possible. Using the Low-Temperature-Dilatometry (TTDil), the frost-thaw behavior of different products during 10 frost-thaw cycles (FTW) has been documented. The correlation with water absorption (WA) and flexural strength (FS) has been examined. All procedures suggest that a gradual increasing damage to the structure occurs, resulting in apparent frost damage. Source

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