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Hilbig A.,Forschungsinstitut For Kinderernahrung Dortmund Fke | Lentze M.J.,Forschungsinstitut For Kinderernahrung Dortmund Fke | Lentze M.J.,University of Bonn | Kersting M.,Forschungsinstitut For Kinderernahrung Dortmund Fke
Monatsschrift fur Kinderheilkunde | Year: 2012

In the second six months of life, complementary feeding becomes the central element of the infant diet. The available rational arguments regarding the total of complementary feeding are an interplay of scientific evidence, to a large part empirical knowledge and sometimes pragmatism. In Germany, current knowledge is reflected in the guidelines for complementary feeding of the 'Dietary schedule for the first year of life'. Nutritional as well as developmental and preventive arguments call for an introduction of complementary feeding at the beginning of the 5th month of life at the earliest and at the beginning of the 7th month at the latest, accompanied by continued breastfeeding. Complementary feeding can either be home made by use of simple recipes or industrially produced meals can be chosen. Recent scientific knowledge calls for a variable selection of foods and renounces any dietary restrictions for allergy prevention. Three types of complementary meals are recommended that complement each other and, taken together with the remaining milk portion, result in an overall nutrient intake conform to the reference values. How dietary intake of nutrients like iron, iodine, protein and fat in complementary feeding can be sensibly evaluated is still debatable. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012.

Hilbig A.,Forschungsinstitut For Kinderernahrung Dortmund Fke | Alexy U.,Forschungsinstitut For Kinderernahrung Dortmund Fke | Drossard C.,Forschungsinstitut For Kinderernahrung Dortmund Fke | Kersting M.,Forschungsinstitut For Kinderernahrung Dortmund Fke
Aktuelle Ernahrungsmedizin | Year: 2011

The nutrition of toddlers has short- and long-term impacts on health and nutrition behaviour. Thus, studies about the nutrition of toddlers are of particular importance. In the German Representative Study of Toddler Alimentation (GRETA) from 2008, 7-day-estimated-dietary records were collected from toddlers aged 1036 months. The study population was recruited in the TNS Access-Panel. Parents estimated the food intake by the frequency of age adapted portion sizes. The objective of this paper was to describe the food and nutrient intake dependent on sex and social class of toddlers aged 13 years old (n=391). In comparison to the food references of the optimised mixed diet, toddlers do not eat enough vegetable foods with exception of fruits and do not drink enough beverages. In contrast, they eat to many sweets and animal foods except for fish. Toddlers from the upper social class eat more vegetable foods, but fewer meat/sausages than toddlers from the lower social class. In all age groups, the energy intake was close to the reference value for a middle activity-level. The intake of fat and carbohydrates was within the reference values but the quality is improvable. The protein intake was 23 times higher than recommended. With exception of iron, iodine (without iodine salt) and folate in some age groups, the intake of vitamins and minerals reached the respective reference values. Differences between the actual food choice and the recommendations were similar in toddlers, children or family nutrition. In contrast, the energy and nutrient intake was mostly adequate in toddlers. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart - New York.

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