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Neugebauer N.,Forschungsinstitut For Die Biologie Landwirtschaftlicher Nutztiere Fbn | Rader I.,Forschungsinstitut For Die Biologie Landwirtschaftlicher Nutztiere Fbn | Schild H.J.,LKV Bayern | Zimmer D.,Forschungsinstitut For Die Biologie Landwirtschaftlicher Nutztiere Fbn | Reinsch N.,Forschungsinstitut For Die Biologie Landwirtschaftlicher Nutztiere Fbn
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2010

Imprinted genes are involved in many aspects of development in mammals, plants, and perhaps birds and may play a role in growth and carcass composition of slaughter animals. In the presence of genomic imprinting the expression and, consequently, the effect on the phenotype of maternal and paternal alleles are different. For genetic evaluation genomic imprinting can be accounted for by incorporating 2 additive genetic effects per animal; the first corresponds to a paternal and the second to a maternal expression pattern of imprinted genes. This model holds whatever the mode of imprinting may be: paternal or maternal, full or partial, or any combination thereof. A set of slaughter data from 65,233 German Simmental fattening bulls was analyzed with respect to the relative importance of the genetic imprinting variance. Besides slaughter weight, net daily BW gain, and killing out percentage,there were 22 other traits describing the carcass composition. The latter traits were evaluated by automatic video-imaging devices and were composed of weights of valuable cuts as well as fat and meatiness grade. The number of ancestors in the pedigree was 356,880. Genomic imprinting significantly contributed to the genetic variance of 10 traits, with estimated proportions between 8 and 25% of the total additive genetic vari-ance. For 6 of these traits, the maternal contribution to the imprinting variance was larger than the paternal, whereas for all other traits the reverse was true. Fat grade only showed a paternal contribution to the imprinting variance. Estimates of animal model heritabilities of automatic video-imaging-recorded carcass traits ranged between 20 and 30%. © 2010 American Society of Animal Science.

Rebl A.,Forschungsinstitut For Die Biologie Landwirtschaftlicher Nutztiere Fbn | Kollner B.,Friedrich Loeffler Institute FLI | Anders E.,Landesforschungsanstalt fur Landwirtschaft und Fischerei Mecklenburg Vorpommern LFA MV | Wimmers K.,Forschungsinstitut For Die Biologie Landwirtschaftlicher Nutztiere Fbn | Goldammer T.,Forschungsinstitut For Die Biologie Landwirtschaftlicher Nutztiere Fbn
Molecular Biology Reports | Year: 2010

Peptidylarginine deiminase (PADI)-like cDNA sequence was isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). It consists of a 111-bp 5′-untranslated region, a 731-bp 3′-UTR, and a 2,010-bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 669 amino acids. In the presence of calcium ions, PADI enzymes catalyze the post-translational modification reaction generating citrulline residues. Mammalian PADI enzymes are involved in a number of regulatory processes during cell differentiation and development such as skin keratinization, myelin maturation, and histone deimination. Though five PADI isotypes have been isolated from mammals, in bony fish only one PADI enzyme is present, which contains conserved amino acid residues responsible for catalysis and calcium ion-binding. Sequence identity of piscine PADI protein sequences available at gene databases exceeds 67%. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that not only piscine, but also amphibian and avian PADI-like proteins share most identical amino acid residues with mammalian PADI2. mRNA level of trout PADI-like gene is high in skin, fin, gills, brain, and spleen of rainbow trout. Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR revealed that PADI gene is differentially expressed in liver, trunk kidney, and spleen of two trout strains, the freshwater-cultured STEELHEAD trout and the brackish water strain BORN. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Vanselow J.,Forschungsinstitut For Die Biologie Landwirtschaftlicher Nutztiere Fbn | Spitschak M.,Forschungsinstitut For Die Biologie Landwirtschaftlicher Nutztiere Fbn | Nimz M.,Forschungsinstitut For Die Biologie Landwirtschaftlicher Nutztiere Fbn | Furbass R.,Forschungsinstitut For Die Biologie Landwirtschaftlicher Nutztiere Fbn
Biology of reproduction | Year: 2010

The luteinizing hormone-induced morphological and physiological reorganization of the bovine follicle is preceded by a profound and well-orchestrated modulation of gene expression. In the present study, the cell type-specific methylation profiles of CYP11A1, HSD3B1, and CYP19A1, genes that encode key enzymes of steroid hormone biosynthesis, were analyzed to elucidate whether epigenetic parameters such as DNA methylation might be involved in gene regulation during luteinization. Transcript abundance and DNA methylation levels were determined in granulosa and theca of large dominant and late preovulatory follicles and in large granulosa lutein cells isolated from corpora lutea cyclica and graviditatis. Levels of the steroid hormones progesterone and estradiol-17beta were monitored to assess the physiological status of individual follicles. From our results, we conclude that (1) individual, even closely neighboring, CpG dinucleotides can show very different methylation levels; (2) proximal (<300 base pair [bp] from the respective transcription start sites) but not distal CpGs show cell type-specific methylation levels; (3) higher methylation levels suggestively preclude high levels of gene expression; (4) DNA methylation is not involved in the transient (HSD3B1 and CYP11A1) respectively permanent (CYP19A1) down-regulation of gene expression in late preovulatory follicles; and (5) DNA methylation may have a role in the permanent shutdown of promoter 2-directed CYP19A1 expression in large (granulosa derived) lutein cells.

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