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Konnert M.,Bayerisches Amt fur forstliche Saatund Pflanzenzucht | Maurer W.,Forschungsanstalt fur Waldokologie und Forstwirtschaft Rheinland Pfalz | Degen B.,Institute For Forstgenetik Des Von Thunen Institute | Katzel R.,Landesforstanstalt Eberswalde
IForest | Year: 2011

In the context of existent programmes of environmental monitoring which have been established as efficient tools for permanently observing environmental changes, a concept for a genetic monitoring in forests was recently elaborated by a German forest geneticist working group. Genetic monitoring is assumed to contribute essentially to the estimation and valuation of the effect of factors influencing the genetic system of trees in the forests, thus making it an early warning and controlling system for ecosystemic changes. The "Concept of a Genetic Monitoring for Forest Tree Species in the Federal Republic of Germany" gives scientifically-based guidelines for monitoring the current state and dynamics of genetic systems in forest stands of diverse tree species in an extensively, harmonized manner. Both objectives and the realization of the genetic monitoring concept are presented here. The status of the genetic systems of forest tree populations is assessed on the basis of criteria, indicators and verifiers. For this purpose the genetic as well as the phenological and physiological levels are taken into consideration in order to follow temporal developments and to estimate influencing factors. The results of a pioneer study concerning the tree species Fagus sylvatica and Prunus avium are reported. © iForest - Biogeosciences and Forestry.

Suz L.M.,Royal Botanic Gardens | Suz L.M.,Imperial College London | Barsoum N.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute | Benham S.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute | And 18 more authors.
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2014

Ectomycorrhizal fungi are major ecological players in temperate forests, but they are rarely used in measures of forest condition because large-scale, high-resolution, standardized and replicated belowground data are scarce. We carried out an analysis of ectomycorrhizas at 22 intensively monitored long-term oak plots, across nine European countries, covering complex natural and anthropogenic environmental gradients. We found that at large scales, mycorrhizal richness and evenness declined with decreasing soil pH and root density, and with increasing atmospheric nitrogen deposition. Shifts in mycorrhizas with different functional traits were detected; mycorrhizas with structures specialized for long-distance transport related differently to most environmental variables than those without. The dominant oak-specialist Lactarius quietus, with limited soil exploration abilities, responds positively to increasing nitrogen inputs and decreasing pH. In contrast, Tricholoma, Cortinarius and Piloderma species, with medium-distance soil exploration abilities, show a consistently negative response. We also determined nitrogen critical loads for moderate (9.5-13.5 kg N/ha/year) and drastic (17 kg N/ha/year) changes in belowground mycorrhizal root communities in temperate oak forests. Overall, we generated the first baseline data for ectomycorrhizal fungi in the oak forests sampled, identified nitrogen pollution as one of their major drivers at large scales and revealed fungi that individually and/or in combination with others can be used as belowground indicators of environmental characteristics. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Leinemann L.,University of Gottingen | Kleinschmit J.,Abteilung Waldgenressourcen | Fussi B.,ASP Teisendorf | Hosius B.,Am Institute For Forstgenetik Und Forstpflanzenzuchtung | And 6 more authors.
Plant Systematics and Evolution | Year: 2014

Sloe (Prunus spinosa L.) is a shrub native to Europe. In Germany, 50–80 % of all planted sloe is imported. Little is known about the genetic diversity patterns within and between German sloe populations. Thus, a debate arose how to avoid risks for nature and landscape by planting potentially maladapted material. The main objectives of our study are to analyse the genetic differentiation pattern of sloe populations in Germany, to identify geographic/genetic structures and to evaluate their potential for tracing reproductive material. 17 natural populations from Germany and 1 from Italy and Hungary were investigated by Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLP) and PCR–RFLP techniques. The AMOVA analyses based on AFLPs for all populations and for the German populations only result in equally high differentiation values of ΦPT = 15 % of molecular variance between populations. The analysis of cpDNA PCR–RFLPs resulted in 24 haplotypes with 30 % showing genetic variation between populations. Overall values of genetic variability over all loci and populations are: Na = 0.832, Ne = 1.114 and He = 0.072. Mantel tests for AFLPs and cpDNA haplotypes reveal no association between geographic and genetic distances between populations as a result of a lack of differentiation between German populations and those from southern and southeastern Europe. Weak geographic/genetic patterns were observed on a large scale. However, these concern the German populations only. Our results indicate that vegetative regeneration in combination with founder effects may influence the level of differentiation between populations. Populations with a large amount of vegetative propagation are more differentiated from other populations than those populations which exhibit less vegetative regeneration. The assignment of reproductive material (i.e. plant material) to potential source populations resulted in high values of correct allocations. Hence, such methods can be applied to trace reproductive material of unknown origin. © 2014, Springer-Verlag Wien.

Leinemann L.,University of Gottingen | Steiner W.,Nordwestdeutsche Forstliche Versuchsanstalt | Hosius B.,Am Institute For Forstgenetik Und Forstpflanzenzuchtung | Kuchma O.,Am Institute For Forstgenetik Und Forstpflanzenzuchtung | And 6 more authors.
Plant Systematics and Evolution | Year: 2013

Corylus avellana L. (hazel) is a long-lived, monoecious and wind-pollinated shrub species, widespread all over Europe. In Germany, hazel is intensively traded and planted, and thus is of central interest from a nature conservancy point of view. To assess the within- and between-population differentiation of hazel, 20 natural populations (18 from Germany, one from Italy and one from Hungary) were investigated genetically. Seven isozyme systems comprising 11 gene loci were analysed in up to 100 samples (average 92.6) per population, amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) were analysed in up to 50 samples (average 47.4) and nine cpDNA-SSR markers were assessed in 20 samples per population. Results for overall isozyme variability with Na 2.46 alleles per locus, allelic diversity (Ne) 1.39, expected heterozygosity He 21 % and 79 % polymorphic loci were in accordance with the findings of previous studies. The respective values for AFLPs were lower, but both marker systems revealed the same level of about 3.5 % differentiation between populations. For cpSSR only the Italian sample showed within-population variation and the two haplotypes were completely differentiated from all other populations expressing a unique genetic structure with one single haplotype. Among the three marker systems AFLPs showed the best ability to differentiate between populations. While only one isozyme locus revealed significant differentiation, 41 AFLP loci showed highly significant differentiation between all populations, but 26 loci when only German populations were considered. Consequently geographic differentiation analyses focused mainly on molecular markers. Mantel tests showed significant correlations between genetic and geographic distance, but in the unweighted pair-group method with arithmetic mean analyses, adjacent populations did not always form clusters. While chloroplast markers were able to clearly distinguish only the Hungarian population, the nuclear markers revealed clear spatial genetic structures. The correlations between geographic and genetic distance was high for AFLPs. The correlograms illustrate this effect for all populations as well as for the German populations. © 2012 The Author(s).

Seegmuller S.,Forschungsanstalt fur Waldokologie und Forstwirtschaft Rheinland Pfalz
Allgemeine Forst- und Jagdzeitung | Year: 2012

Viscotoxins are small proteins with three reducible disulfide bonds. Due to their immunostimulating and cell lysing properties they are widely used in cancer therapy. Though important for drug design, little is known about their site specific concentrations and eco-physiological properties. Therefore this study addresses the question, in how far there are regional differences in the Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) mistletoe (Viscum album L. ssp. austriacum) viscotoxin 1-PS. Furthermore it highlights possible links to the nutrition- and stress physiology of the plants. To this purpose Scots pine mistletoes were collected from five extensively nutritionally and climatologically surveyed pine stands along a northeast - southwest transsect through Germany and Switzerland (Fig. 1). According to pine needle contents, trees suffered at the most from moderate nitrogen deficiency and were sufficiently supplied with sulfur (Tab. 2). In 2001 aridity indices during growing period were lowest in Visp and ratios of irradiance to temperature in autumn were highest in Leis, both sites in Switzerland (Tab. 3, 4). In order to prevent short time fluctuations in viscotoxin content, mistletoe specimens were collected in January 2002 at predawn or shortly afterwards at temperatures around freeze point. The study concentrates on 1-PS as the most abundant Scots pine mistletoe viscotoxin. 1-PS was analysed via HPLC. There are substantial differences in 1-PS contents from mistletoes on different sites with mistletoes from swiss sites being highest in 1-PS (Fig. 2). 1-PS has negatively been correlated to host leaf nitrogen and sulfur status (Fig. 3a, b). On the other hand there are positive correlations between mistletoe 1-PS and both summer aridity and autumn global irradiance ratios (Fig. 4 a, 5a). Apparently, the most abundant Scots pine mistletoe viscotoxin is highest, if the risks for drought or irradiance stress are highest. At the same time, there are correlations between summer precipitation and autumn irradiance ratios, respectively, and host tree needle contents in nitrogen and sulfur (Tab. 6). Therefore it is concluded that 1-PS may play a part in the antioxidative system, if nitrogen and sulfur status of the plants do not meet the plant requirements for a proper assimilation rate and/or antioxdative capacity.

To assess the ecological integration of Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) into the natural forest ecosystems and especially of her invasivness two strict forest reserves (SFR) and two managed comparative areas (MCA) were established. They are each in a main occurrence of Douglas fir, i. e. in the Palatinate Forest and the Eifel Mts. and are observed for forest structures, regeneration, vegetation, beetles and fungi. The structures oft the compact wood in both regions differ characteristically with regard to establishment and treatment of the stands: while in the Palatinate Forest Douglas fir was cultured admixed with beech, pine and spruce, in the Eifel Mts. Douglas fir stands were established primarily pure. In both SFR Douglas fir rejuvenates at significantly lower proportions (number of trees) as compared to the main stand (percentage of basal area). The survey on vegetation shows that older Douglas fir pure and mixed stands reveal a higher degree of structure and species diversity than even-aged and relatively close-to-nature mixed stands of beech-hornbeam-sessile oak, beech-Scots pine and Norway spruce-beech. Regarding the beetle fauna Douglas fir stands have always turned out fewer species than the next located mixed stands. Similar result is also obtained in the survey of fungi, whereas in the Palatinate Forest species skipping from pine to Douglas fir could also be observed. The ecological integration and invasiveness of Douglas fir is partly assessed differently: While no displacement and no disappearance of species could be observed on the sites studied, the Douglas fir applies to dry and tend to lean locations as competitive and able to displace other species, which nature conservation sees problematic. © DLV GmbH.

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