Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux ALP Haras

Switzerland

Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux ALP Haras

Switzerland

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Meisser M.,Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Changins Wadenswil ACW | Deleglise C.,Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Changins Wadenswil ACW | Mosimann E.,Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Changins Wadenswil ACW | Signarbieux C.,Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne | And 4 more authors.
Agrarforschung Schweiz | Year: 2013

In order to determine the impacts of a severe summer drought on the agronomic value and diverse physiological and functional characteristics of a permanent meadow, a trial was carried out in 2012 on a mountain farm located in the Swiss Jura (1200 m). Two factors - management type (mowing vs grazing) and moisture (drought vs control) - were tested with a 2 × 2-design. The drought stress was simulated by means of rain shelters for a duration of 84 days. The grazed plots were grazed every four weeks with ewes, whereas the mowed plots were cut three times in the season. The biomass and the quality of the forage were monitored across the season. The botanical composition of the meadow and the functional traits of the 16 most abundant species were assessed before and after the drought treatment. The photosynthesis rate, the pre-dawn leaf water potential and the respiration of the soil were all measured. Apart from important yield losses, the drought stress also led to changes in the nutrient contents and the nutritive value of the forage. The ecophysiological measurements reflected a slowdown of the whole ecosystem. The grazed plots, characterized by a shorter vegetation, were more impacted by the drought than the mown plots.


Schlegel P.,Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux ALP Haras | Menzi H.,Hochschule fur Agrar
Agrarforschung Schweiz | Year: 2013

Breeding and excretions of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium The aim of this study was to evaluate, by means of a survey, the forage intake and nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) excretions in breeding and fattening rabbit farms. The does produced an average of 6,4 litters a year and kittens were weaned between 24 and 35 days. In the fattening units, 5,2 stock rotations were accomplished a year and a final weight of 2,9 kg was reached with an average gain of 42 g/d and a feed conversion ratio 4,17. Based on fresh matter, the N, P and K contents of rabbits were respectively 30,4, 6,5 and 3,1 g/kg. The dietary contents ranged between 21,4 and 23,8 g N, 5,0 and 6,0 g P and between 13,5 and 14,9 g K depending on the animal category. Forage intake represented 20, 15 and 9% of total intake by does, young breeding stock and fattening rabbits respectively. The annual excretion of N and P was lower than the currently used standards in rabbit breeding but higher in rabbit fattening. The annual K excretion was considerably higher than currently believed in cuniculture.


Pittet G.,Suisselab AG | Luginbuhl W.,CHEMSTAT | Berger T.,Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux ALP Haras
Agrarforschung Schweiz | Year: 2012

Every month, only one official milk-testing result is available from between 1000 and 1200 milk producers instead of the two required. Of the missing results, one part originates from milk-collection centers where milk delivery takes place every other day and sampling is performed manually, and is therefore attributable to the time delay between sampling notification and milk delivery. Extending the maximum time allowed between sampling and commencement of the analysis from 30 to 36 hours would provide an easy and cost-effective method to solve this problem. The increase in the number of samples with results above the maximum permitted limit would be slight: In the present study, the percentage increased from 1,397 % at 30 hours to 1,468 - 2,648 % at 36 hours, representing a rise of 0,07 - 1,25 %. This can be accepted as a justifiable drawback as it would affect very few producers and only those whose milk at 30 hours contains bacterial counts close to the official limit. The overall discrimination would probably be even lower as the increased time span would not necessarily affect both monthly samples and therefore, after calculation of the monthly geometric mean as required by the public-law milk quality control, the results may well remain within the limits set.


Wyss U.,Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux ALP Haras
Agrarforschung Schweiz | Year: 2012

In Switzerland, some farms are using chemical preservatives in order to preserve moist hay. Detailed knowledge of the DM-content as well as the correct dosage are important for the success. In a trial, the efficacy of the preservative Selko Heu was investigated with hay of two different dry matter contents and three different dosages. As negative control, variants without additives were tested. These negative controls were additionally tested with different forage densities. During a period of 30 days, temperature was continuously controlled. Before and after this period, the dry matter contents and different parameters were analysed. In both DM levels, the untreated hay heated strongly and at the end it was totally moldy. The different densities showed that the stronger the hay was pressed, the higher the heating and the spoilage was. In contrast to the negative control, with the addition of the preservative Selko Heu, the heating up and the deterioration of the hay spoilage could be partly or totally reduced. The correct dosage is important for the success.


Wyss U.,Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux ALP Haras | Goy D.,Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux ALP Haras
Agrarforschung Schweiz | Year: 2012

The guidelines of different traditional Swiss semi hard and hard cheeses prohibit to feed conserved forage containing more than 18 % water to dairy cows. In two trials, the butyric acid bacterial content of the forage, faeces and milk of cattle fed with moist hay and silages was investigated. In the first trial, silages with 38 and 53 % dry matter as well as ventilated hay were produced from the same original material. In the second trial, moist hay was treated with propionic acid and ventilated hay was produced as a comparison. On average, the moist hay had a DM content of 80 % when baled and 84 % when fed. The different forages were fed to dairy cows for three weeks. Feed, faeces and milk samples were taken at regular intervals to determine the number of butyric acid bacterial spores. In the third week of the trial, hard cheese was made on two days. The forage had low contents of butyric acid bacterial spores. The milk of the cows fed with grass silage or moist hay exhibited slightly higher spores content than that of those fed with ventilated hay. However, no problems occurred during cheese making.


Arrigo Y.,Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux ALP Haras | Stoll P.,Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux ALP Haras
Agrarforschung Schweiz | Year: 2012

In order to check and improve the prediction of their nutritive value, 12 maize silages were studied as a supplement to the previous trials. Two varieties (Amadeo and LG32,52) were harvested at three different stages over the course of two years. The silages were studied to determine organic-matter digestibility (OMD) in the case of sheep, and nitrogen degradability (ND) in the case of fistulated cows. The chemical compositions differed more between years than between varieties. The OMDs of the plants increased with maturity, with the milky stage differing (p<0,01) from the two wax-ripe stages (69,1 % vs. 74,9 % and 76,8 %), without distinction between the two varieties, whilst the ND decreased. In the hard-dough stage, the coefficient was lower (66,5 %, p<0.01) than that of the other stages (76,5 % for the milky and 77,8 % for the soft-dough stage, respectively). The ND of the two varieties was similar (p=0,4). The differences between the nutritive values calculated from coefficients determined or estimated by equations varied from + 2 % to - 14,6 % for the NELs and from + 9 % to -16,6 % for the PAIEs. A new equation for OMD and a correction of the estimated OMD are proposed in order to reduce the residual standard deviations. The predicted values will remain approximative values which must be used with grat care.


The assessment of the nutritional value of plants rich in condensed tannins (CT) stems from the models predicting the normal nutritional value. In order to verify the effects, this study compares the nutritional value of chicory (cychorium intybus), sainfoin (onobrychis viciifolia) and lotus (lotus corniculatus) obtained with data determined using animals (in vivo, in sacco) or with prediction equations with regard to levels of CT. The organic matter digestibility (OMD) in vivo of chicory (78.8 %) was higher (p < 0.01) than the similar OMD of the two other plants (69.3 %). Sainfoin with the highest concentration of CT obtains the lowest content in digestible nitrogenous matter (DNM) with 58.7 % (vs. chicory with 69.7 and lotus with 76.5 % p<0.01). The degradability of the nitrogenous matter of plants with low CT values is comparable for chicory and lotus (64.2 % and 65.1 %) but is different to that of sainfoin 47.8 % (p < 0.01).The best forecasts for forage studied were obtained for chicory (1st cycle stage leaves without stalks) with OMD equations for a mixture with a high degree of other plants with thin leaves, for lotus (3rd cycle start of flowering) with that for legumes and for sainfoin (1st cycle start of flowering) with that for an unspecified mixture.


Jakob E.,Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux ALP Haras | Goy D.,Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux ALP Haras | Haldemann J.,Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux ALP Haras | Badertscher R.,Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux ALP Haras
Agrarforschung Schweiz | Year: 2013

The quality of milk produced by ten farms with an automatic milking system (AMS) and eight farms with a milking parlour (MP) was compared. On each farm, two milk samples - one of evening milk and one taken the following morning were taken monthly in summer, autumn and winter. The samples were analysed for fat, protein, somatic cells, free butyric acid, aerobic mesophilic germs, psychrotrophic germs and anaerobic spores. Other test parameters were freezing point (FP) as well as titratable acidity and methylene blue reduction time after pre-incubation for 11h at 38 °C and 32 °C respectively. Mean values for AMS and MP milk were significantly different for all parameters except fat and AS (P<0.05). Milk from AMS farms had significantly shorter methylene blue reduction time (38,0 vs. 47,3 min; P<0,001), higher titrat-able acidity (14,5 vs. 11,4 °SH; P<0,001) and slightly higher counts for aerobic mesophilic germs (6800 vs. 6000 kbE/mL; P<0,001). Levels of free butyric acid were much higher in AMS milk than in MP milk (0,107 vs. 0,061 mmol/L; P<0,001). For all parameters except free butyric acid, farm-to-farm variations were more important than variations between the milking systems.


Wyss U.,Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux ALP Haras | Arrigo Y.,Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux ALP Haras
Agrarforschung Schweiz | Year: 2013

In the years 2008 and 2010, the two maize varieties Amadeo and LG 32.52 were harvested in the milk ripeness, in the early and late dough stage and ensiled in 700 l containers. After opening the container, samples were taken to determine the fermentation quality and the aerobic stability with temperature measurements. With increasing development stage of the two varieties, the ash contents and fiber fractions in the silages decreased while the starch increased. The sugar content was relatively low in both varieties and in all three stages of development. In the maize silage, harvested in the milk stage, a more intensive lactic acid fermentation took place in both varieties than it did in the early and late dough stage. Furthermore, this is where the highest dry matter losses were observed. Regarding the aerobic stability, both varieties were very similar. Despite the same management conditions, big differences between the two years could be made out. The environmental conditions therefore have a greater impact on the aerobic stability than the choice of the variety.


Besier J.,Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux ALP Haras | Strickler B.,Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux ALP Haras | von Niederhausern R.,Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux ALP Haras | Wyss U.,Forschungsanstalt Agroscope Liebefeld Posieux ALP Haras
Agrarforschung Schweiz | Year: 2013

In horse diets, hay is getting more and more replaced by haylage. In 2011, hay and haylage were produced in Avenches VD from an Italian ryegrass as well as from a mixture, which contained ten grasses and alfalfa. The conservation properties, the nutritional values and the microbiological quality of the feed were evaluated with regard to the feeding of horses. In comparison to the mixture, the ryegrass showed lower crude ash, crude protein, crude fiber and digestible crude protein contents, but higher sugar and fructan contents and more digestible energy for horses, which was estimated on the basis of the nutritional values. The conservation systems either hay or haylage, had a significant effect on the crude protein, the digestible crude protein and fructan contents. The crude protein and digestible crude protein in the hay were lower than in the haylage; however, the fructan contents were higher. There were considerable differences in the microbiological quality of hay and haylage. The hay was not dry enough at baling (DM-content < 82%) and therefore, the hay had a high mould infestation after the storage period. In this comparison, haylage proved to be more advantageous than hay for horses due to lower fructan contents and the lower mould infestation.

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