Forschungs und Beratungsinstitut Gefahrstoffe GmbH

Freiburg, Germany

Forschungs und Beratungsinstitut Gefahrstoffe GmbH

Freiburg, Germany
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Kalberlah F.,Forschungs und Beratungsinstitut Gefahrstoffe GmbH | Schwarz M.,Forschungs und Beratungsinstitut Gefahrstoffe GmbH | Bunke D.,Oko Institute E V Freiburg | Wurbs J.,Umweltbundesamt
Umweltwissenschaften und Schadstoff-Forschung | Year: 2010

Aim and Background Currently, the protection from hazardous substances occurring in consumer articles is often insufficient. In this paper, we discuss whether this situation will improve relevantly in the course of the implementation of the new European regulation on chemical substances (REACH). Changes under REACH may be heterogeneous. Therefore, differential effects depending on the tonnage as placed on the market, on the amount of substances contained in an article, and depending on timelines and exemptions for meeting the legal requirements, are discussed in this paper, together with a presentation of some uses of substances serving as examples. Discussion and Conclusions If substances are adequately registered, all identified and supported uses including their use in articles should be assessed. Therefore, where the full implementation of the registration conditions applies a substantial improvement may be expected due to REACH. Usually, producers or importers of articles are not required to register substances contained in these articles. Instead, the manufacturer or importer of the respective substance is usually responsible for registration, if exposure to the substance cannot be excluded and emission of the substance from an article is not the intended purpose. This may differ for substances intentionally released from articles. Additional obligations for substances not intentionally released mainly apply to substances of very high concern (SVHC). For the latter, the producer or importer of articles has to notify the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) on the occurrence of the respective SVHC in articles. This information is important, especially because substances in imported articles may not be registered in advance Authorisation within REACH is a very far reaching and effective tool of the legislation. However, authorisation is not required for SVHC imported as components of articles. Therefore, one main effect intended by REACH, i. e. the substitution of SVHC, may possibly be undermined by importers of SVHC in articles. Restrictions, as specified in Annex XVII of REACH, offer a powerful opportunity to improve health and environmental safety with respect to hazardous substances. We support an extended understanding of what is defined as a "substance of concern" in the context of restrictions. This definition should be broader than just what is currently covered by the term SVHC. Consequences of restrictions may equally apply to European producers and importers of articles from outside of Europe, which contain such substances of concern. Another instrument currently closely linked to SVHC (in its more restricted definition), is the obligation of the producer or importer of articles to provide information according to article 33 (REACH). The downstream recipient of an article has to be informed on the content of SVHC in this article and how its safe use is ensured. Warehouses, wholesalers and other traders may therefore be aware of the SVHC contained in articles and may look for substitutes without such ingredients. Also, consumers may request this information on SVHC (just provided on demand) and are thus enabled to decide to buy other articles with less hazardous properties. © Springer-Verlag 2010.


Schwarz M.A.,Forschungs und Beratungsinstitut Gefahrstoffe GmbH | Lindtner O.,Bundesinstitut For Risikobewertung Bfr | Blume K.,Bundesinstitut For Risikobewertung Bfr | Heinemeyer G.,Bundesinstitut For Risikobewertung Bfr | Schneider K.,Forschungs und Beratungsinstitut Gefahrstoffe GmbH
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2014

Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and -furan (PCDD/F) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (dl-PCB) exposure from food were estimated using new food consumption data from the recent German food consumption survey (Nationale Verzehrsstudie II - NVS II). Based on these comprehensive data, information on the consumption of 545 individual food items by the German population was derived. Concentrations of dioxin-like compounds in food were compiled from the German Food Monitoring Programme (GFMP), the German Dioxin Database, other German authority programmes, European countries' authority programmes and the published literature covering the years 2000-2010. By multiplication with consumption data, estimates of intake from food were determined. The main food groups contributing most to the intake of the general public are dairy products (including milk), meat and fish (including seafood), followed - due to high consumption - by the main group vegetables. The combined intake of PCDD/F and dl-PCB (as toxic equivalents - TEQ) from food was estimated to be 2.11/1.53 pg kg-1 bw and day and 3.56/2.85 pg kg-1 bw and day (upper/lower bound) for average and high-end consumers, respectively. The estimated intake of average consumers is close to a reference value derived by the Scientific Committee on Food in 2001. Uncertainties in these estimates pertain to the influence of values below the limit of quantification (upper/lower bound ratio) and some foods not considered due to the lack of contamination data. © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


Schwarz M.A.,Forschungs und Beratungsinstitut Gefahrstoffe GmbH | Lindtner O.,Bundesinstitut For Risikobewertung Bfr | Blume K.,Bundesinstitut For Risikobewertung Bfr | Heinemeyer G.,Bundesinstitut For Risikobewertung Bfr | Schneider K.,Forschungs und Beratungsinstitut Gefahrstoffe GmbH
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2014

Cadmium is a very toxic contaminant with food being the major source of exposure for the general public. The second German food consumption survey (Nationale Verzehrsstudie II - NVS II) with about 20 000 participants (15 371 for dietary history interviews used for this study) allowed for an updated exposure assessment for the German population. Based on these comprehensive data, information on the consumption of 545 individual food items by the German population was generated. Cadmium concentrations in food were compiled from the German food monitoring programme, European countries' authority programmes and the published literature, covering the years from 1993 to 2008, and were multiplied with consumption data to obtain estimates of cadmium intake from food. Consumption-weighted mean cadmium concentrations per main food group were highest for cereals, followed by oily seeds & fruits, and vegetables. Due to both high consumption and considerable occurrence of cadmium, cereals and vegetables contributed most to the intake of the general public, followed by the main groups beverages, fruits & nuts, and dairy products (including milk). Cadmium intake from food was estimated to be 1.46 and 2.35 μg kg-1 bw week-1 for average and high-end consumers, respectively. This corresponds to 58% for average and 95% for high-end consumers, respectively, of a reference value derived from a recent health risk evaluation performed by EFSA, using the benchmark approach. Uncertainties in these estimates pertain to the influence of values below the limit of quantification and some foods not considered due to lacking occurrence data. In conclusion, the estimated cadmium intake of the German population from food is still close to health-based reference values. Further efforts to reduce cadmium intake are required. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.


Schneider K.,Forschungs und Beratungsinstitut Gefahrstoffe GmbH | Schwarz M.A.,Forschungs und Beratungsinstitut Gefahrstoffe GmbH | Lindtner O.,Bundesinstitut For Risikobewertung Bfr | Blume K.,Bundesinstitut For Risikobewertung Bfr | Heinemeyer G.,Bundesinstitut For Risikobewertung Bfr
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2014

Lead is a highly toxic contaminant with food being the major source of exposure for the general public. The second German food consumption survey (Nationale Verzehrsstudie II - NVS II) with about 20 000 participants (15 371 for dietary history interviews used for this study) allowed for an updated exposure assessment for the German population. Based on these comprehensive data, information on consumption of 545 individual food items by the German population was generated. Lead concentrations in food were compiled from the German food monitoring programme, European countries' authority programmes and the published literature, covering the years from 2000 to 2009, and were multiplied with consumption data to obtain estimates of lead intake from food. Average lead concentrations per main food group were highest for meat (including offal), followed by fish (including seafood), vegetables and cereals. Due to high consumption, beverages contributed most to the intake of the general public, followed by main groups vegetables, fruits & nuts and cereals. Lead intake from food was estimated to be 0.53 and 0.72 μg kg-1 bw and day for average and high-end consumers, respectively. This is close to (average consumers) respectively above (high-end consumers) a reference value derived from a recent health risk evaluation performed by EFSA, using the benchmark approach. Uncertainties in these estimates pertain to the influence of values below the limit of quantification and some foods not considered due to lacking occurrence data. In conclusion, the estimated lead intake of the German population from food is still close to health-based reference values. Further efforts to reduce lead intake are required. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.

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