Entity

Time filter

Source Type


Lanzoni G.,Diabetes Research InstituteUniversity of MiamiMiami | Carpino G.,Foro Italico University of Rome
Hepatology | Year: 2015

Stem/progenitors for liver, biliary tree, and pancreas exist at early stages of development in the definitive ventral endoderm forming the foregut. In humans, they persist postnatally as part of a network, with evidence supporting their contributions to hepatic and pancreatic organogenesis throughout life. Multiple stem cell niches persist in specific anatomical locations within the human biliary tree and pancreatic ducts. In liver and pancreas, replication of mature parenchymal cells ensures the physiological turnover and the restoration of parenchyma after minor injuries. Although actively debated, multiple observations indicate that stem/progenitor cells contribute to repair pervasive, chronic injuries. The most primitive of the stem/progenitor cells, biliary tree stem cells, are found in peribiliary glands within extrahepatic and large intrahepatic bile ducts. Biliary tree stem cells are comprised of multiple subpopulations with traits suggestive of maturational lineage stages and yet capable of self-replication and multipotent differentiation, being able to differentiate to mature liver cells (hepatocytes, cholangiocytes) and mature pancreatic cells (including functional islet endocrine cells). Hepatic stem cells are located within canals of Hering and bile ductules and are capable of differentiating to hepatocyte and cholangiocyte lineages. The existence, phenotype, and anatomical location of stem/progenitors in the adult pancreas are actively debated. Ongoing studies suggest that pancreatic stem cells reside within the biliary tree, primarily the hepatopancreatic common duct, and are rare in the pancreas proper. Pancreatic ducts and pancreatic duct glands harbor committed pancreatic progenitors. Conclusion: The hepatic, biliary, and pancreatic network of stem/progenitor cell niches should be considered as a framework for understanding liver and pancreatic regeneration after extensive or chronic injuries and for the study of human chronic diseases affecting these organs. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases. Source


Crescioli C.,Foro Italico University of Rome
Clinical Biochemistry | Year: 2015

Improving long-term management, life-quality and outcome of transplant recipients continues to be a challenge. The impact of highly chemoattractant proteins as chemokines on transplant outcome is undeniable. These immunoactive molecules are critical in a wide variety of physiological and pathological processes, such as immunosurveillance, inflammation, infection, cancer, and rejection or tolerance after organ transplantation. Chemokines, playing an essential role in immune cell recruitment and localization within the graft, mirror the complex processes occurring in host-graft dialogue. In particular, the system of inflammatory chemokines and their receptors is modulated throughout all stages of transplantation and its inhibition counteracts rejection processes. The increase in chemokine expression at gene or protein level is, indeed, associated to multiorgan rejection. Thus, chemokines could serve as markers for risk of organ dysfunction/rejection and outcome predictors. This review intends to summarize chemokine function in transplantation and particularly focuses onto proinflammatory molecules such as CXC chemokines, which mediate early graft rejection in different organs and warrant consideration as predictors of outcome. The potentiality of chemokines - CXCL10 in particular - as systemic, robust, non-invasive, reliable and reproducible biomarkers for post-transplantation surveillance is addressed. Ideally, chemokines, as potential tools to predict and improve outcome, could give clinicians the opportunity to ameliorate patients' life-quality. © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Source


Romagnani P.,University of Florence | Crescioli C.,Foro Italico University of Rome
Clinica Chimica Acta | Year: 2012

Interferon (IFN) γ-induced protein 10. kDa (IP-10) or C-X-C motif chemokine 10 (CXCL10) is a small cytokine belonging to the CXC chemokine family. This family of signaling molecules is known to control several biological functions and to also play pivotal roles in disease initiation and progression. By binding to its specific cognate receptor CXCR3, CXCL10 critically regulates chemotaxis during several immune-inflammatory processes. In particular, this chemokine controls chemotaxis during the inflammatory response resulting from allograft rejection after transplantation.Interestingly, a strong association has been described between CXCL10 production, immune response and the fate of the graft following allotransplantation. Enhanced CXCL10 production has been observed in recipients of transplants of different organs. This enhanced production likely comes from either the graft or the immune cells and is correlated with an increase in the concentration of circulating CXCL10. Because CXCL10 can be easily measured in the serum and plasma from a patient, the detection and quantitation of circulating CXCL10 could be used to reveal a transplant recipient's immune status.The purpose of this review is to examine the critical role of CXCL10 in the pathogenesis of allograft rejection following organ transplantation. This important role highlights the potential utilization of CXCL10 not only as a therapeutic target but also as a biomarker to predict the severity of rejection, to monitor the inflammatory status of organ recipients and, hopefully, to fine-tune patient therapy in transplantation. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.. Source


Mariani P.P.,Foro Italico University of Rome
Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy | Year: 2010

Fibroarthrosis following knee injury or synovial disease is characterized by the presence of dense adhesions filling the entire joint cavity and the fibrotic involvement of periarticular structures. In this particular subset of knee stiffness, both the open and the arthroscopic treatment may fail not addressing all pathology. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of an all-arthroscopic treatment for the flexion contractures addressing both the intra-articular posterior adhesions and the fibrotic periarticular structures. From 2003 through 2007, 18 patients of the knee underwent on arthroscopic posterior arthrolysis with release of both gastrocnemius tendons using the trans-septal technique. The median interval between the index procedure and the arthrolysis was 15 (4-22) months. Eight patients had a previous arthroscopic arthrolysis, performed in other hospitals, and two patients had two arthroscopic procedures after the index procedure which failed to regain the extension deficit. The passive extension deficit averaged 34° preoperatively (16°-44°). Six patients underwent a two-staged procedure: the first surgery addressed the presence of adhesions in the suprapatellar pouch and the medial and/or lateral gutters, to regain the flexion of the knee. At final follow-up, the passive extension deficit averaged 3° (0°-5°). In all patients, total knee arc of motion increased from 60° (30°-85°) to 95° (5°-110°). The trans-septal portal allows a safe approach of the posterior compartments and allows addressing pathology of both compartments and the release of gastrocnemius tendons. © Springer-Verlag 2009. Source


Lanzoni G.,University of Miami | Cardinale V.,University of Rome La Sapienza | Carpino G.,Foro Italico University of Rome
Hepatology | Year: 2016

Stem/progenitors for liver, biliary tree, and pancreas exist at early stages of development in the definitive ventral endoderm forming the foregut. In humans, they persist postnatally as part of a network, with evidence supporting their contributions to hepatic and pancreatic organogenesis throughout life. Multiple stem cell niches persist in specific anatomical locations within the human biliary tree and pancreatic ducts. In liver and pancreas, replication of mature parenchymal cells ensures the physiological turnover and the restoration of parenchyma after minor injuries. Although actively debated, multiple observations indicate that stem/progenitor cells contribute to repair pervasive, chronic injuries. The most primitive of the stem/progenitor cells, biliary tree stem cells, are found in peribiliary glands within extrahepatic and large intrahepatic bile ducts. Biliary tree stem cells are comprised of multiple subpopulations with traits suggestive of maturational lineage stages and yet capable of self-replication and multipotent differentiation, being able to differentiate to mature liver cells (hepatocytes, cholangiocytes) and mature pancreatic cells (including functional islet endocrine cells). Hepatic stem cells are located within canals of Hering and bile ductules and are capable of differentiating to hepatocyte and cholangiocyte lineages. The existence, phenotype, and anatomical location of stem/progenitors in the adult pancreas are actively debated. Ongoing studies suggest that pancreatic stem cells reside within the biliary tree, primarily the hepatopancreatic common duct, and are rare in the pancreas proper. Pancreatic ducts and pancreatic duct glands harbor committed pancreatic progenitors. Conclusion: The hepatic, biliary, and pancreatic network of stem/progenitor cell niches should be considered as a framework for understanding liver and pancreatic regeneration after extensive or chronic injuries and for the study of human chronic diseases affecting these organs. (Hepatology 2016;64:277-286). © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases Source

Discover hidden collaborations