The Forman Christian College University , is a private chartered university located in the residential area of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.Founded in 1864 by American Christian activist and academician Dr. Charles William Forman, it gained "university status" granted by the Government and offers various academic programmes for undergraduate and post-graduate studies. Since its establishment it has reputed itself as one of the premier institution of higher learning in the country in various academic disciplines. As of 2013, the university is currently rank as one of the top institution in "general category" by the HEC.Since its establishment, the university is noted for producing notable scholars, intellectuals, and statesmen who played vital role in the affairs of Pakistan. In addition, the university is one of few quite institution that offers an American-style education. Wikipedia.
Tariq A.,Forman Christian College |
Foroosh H.,University of Central Florida
IEEE Transactions on Image Processing | Year: 2017
Automatic image annotation methods are extremely beneficial for image search, retrieval, and organization systems. The lack of strict correlation between semantic concepts and visual features, referred to as the semantic gap, is a huge challenge for annotation systems. In this paper, we propose an image annotation model that incorporates contextual cues collected from sources both intrinsic and extrinsic to images, to bridge the semantic gap. The main focus of this paper is a large real-world data set of news images that we collected. Unlike standard image annotation benchmark data sets, our data set does not require human annotators to generate artificial ground truth descriptions after data collection, since our images already include contextually meaningful and real-world captions written by journalists. We thoroughly study the nature of image descriptions in this real-world data set. News image captions describe both visual contents and the contexts of images. Auxiliary information sources are also available with such images in the form of news article and metadata (e.g., keywords and categories). The proposed framework extracts contextual-cues from available sources of different data modalities and transforms them into a common representation space, i.e., the probability space. Predicted annotations are later transformed into sentence-like captions through an extractive framework applied over news articles. Our context-driven framework outperforms the state of the art on the collected data set of approximately 20 000 items, as well as on a previously available smaller news images data set. © 1992-2012 IEEE.
Al-Rashida M.,Forman Christian College |
Iqbal J.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology
Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2015
Alkaline phosphatase (AP, EC 22.214.171.124.) is a metalloenzyme that belongs to a family of ectonucleotidases. The other members of ectonucleotidase family are ecto-nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (E-NTPDases), ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases (E-NPPs) and ecto-5ʹ-nucleotidase (e5ʹNT). These ectonucleotidases are responsible for hydrolyzing extracellular nucleotides to nucleosides including adenosine. Many of these extracellular nucleotides and adenosine are important signaling molecules that act on their respective receptors (adenosine activated P1 receptor; nucleotide activated P2 receptor, each having many sub-types) and are therefore responsible for triggering cellular responses that lead to important physiological and immunological changes. A dedicated, concerted cohort of ectonucleotidases is responsible for controlling the availability of these extracellular signaling molecules at their respective receptors. Inhibitors of these ectonucleotidases provide the means by which these cellular processes can be modulated. This mini review has been written in the wake of mounting evidence of potential therapeutic benefits associated with inhibition of alkaline phosphatases and aims to provide prolific leads to design more potent and selective AP inhibitors. © 2015 Bentham Science Publishers
Riaz A.,Forman Christian College |
Rasib K.Z.,Forman Christian College |
Raza S.,The University of Lahore
Annual Research and Review in Biology | Year: 2017
Coptotermes heimi is a destructive subterranean termite species commonly found on the Indian subcontinent. Environmental concerns of chemical insecticides usage forced scientist to concentrate on alternative methods. Metarhizium anisopliae is observed to have pathogenic effects against various arthropods. This study focused on the interaction of M. anisopliae with C. heimi to check its virulence against the termites. Specific spore concentration of M. anisopliae (1.1×107conidia/ml) was applied on different group sizes of termites to check if termite population has any effect on its mortality. Results showed that with the increase of group size of termites, mortality rate decreases. © 2017 Riaz et al.
Ahmed D.,Forman Christian College |
Younas S.,Forman Christian College |
Mughal Q.M.A.,Forman Christian College
Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences | Year: 2014
Melilotus indicus (Linn.) All. is a small herb distributed throughout Pakistan and has a number of ethnomedicinal uses. It is also consumed as a vegetable. In the present work, we are reporting the alpha-amylase and urease inhibitory activities of methanolic extract of M. indicus and its sub-fractions in different solvents. Both the methanolic extract and its fractions in chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water showed remarkable inhibitory activities against alpha-amylase with the IC50 values being 1.29, 1.45, 1.07, 1.45 and 2.10 mg/mL respectively. The efficacy of the methanolic extract was comparable with that of acarbose (1.20 mg/mL), while the ethyl acetate fraction was more potent. The urease inhibitory activities of methanolic extract and chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water fractions were more prominent with IC50 values being 0.95, 0.89, 1.53, 0.98 and 4.90 μg/mL respectively. The activity of methanolic extract was slightly higher than that of thiourea (0.97 μg/mL) which in turn was slightly higher than that of n-butanolic fraction. The chloroform fraction showed the highest anti-urease activity. All the plant samples showed enzyme inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, they were manifold more effective against urease than alpha-amylase. The combination of the plant extract with acarbose considerably increased the potency of the latter. The findings suggest that enzyme inhibitory activities of the vegetable M. indicus may have pharmacological significance against diabetes mellitus and gastrointestinal ulcers.
Baig D.N.,Forman Christian College |
Yanagawa T.,University of TsukubaIbaraki |
Tabuchi K.,Shinshu University
Brain Research Bulletin | Year: 2017
Synaptic cell adhesion molecules (SCAMs) are a functional category of cell adhesion molecules that connect pre- and postsynapses by the protein-protein interaction via their extracellular cell adhesion domains. Countless numbers of common genetic variants and rare mutations in SCAMs have been identified in the patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Among these, NRXN and NLGN family proteins cooperatively function at synaptic terminals both of which genes are strongly implicated as risk genes for ASDs. Knock-in mice carrying a single rare point mutation of NLGN3 (NLGN3 R451C) discovered in the patients with ASDs display a deficit in social interaction and an enhancement of spatial learning and memory ability reminiscent of the clinical phenotype of ASDs. NLGN4 knockout (KO) and NRXN2α KO mice also show a deficit in sociability as well as some specific neuropsychiatric behaviors. In this review, we selected NRXNs/NLGNs, CNTNAP2/CNTNAP4, CNTN4, ITGB3, and KIRREL3 as strong ASD risk genes based on SFARI score and summarize the protein structures, functions at synapses, representative discoveries in human genetic studies, and phenotypes of the mutant model mice in light of the pathophysiology of ASDs. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.
Zaheer S.,University of Maryland University College |
Zaheer S.,Forman Christian College |
Yoon P.H.,University of Maryland University College
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2013
A recent series of papers put forth a self-consistent theory of an asymptotically steady-state electron distribution function and Langmuir turbulence intensity. The theory was developed in terms of the κ distribution which features Maxwellian low-energy electrons and a non-Maxwellian energetic power-law tail component. The present paper discusses a generalized κ distribution that features a Davydov-Druyvesteyn type of core component and an energetic power-law tail component. The physical motivation for such a generalization is so that the model may reflect the influence of low-energy electrons interacting with low-frequency kinetic Alfvénic turbulence as well as with high-frequency Langmuir turbulence. It is shown that such a solution and the accompanying Langmuir wave spectrum rigorously satisfy the balance requirement between the spontaneous and induced emission processes in both the particle and wave kinetic equations, and approximately satisfy the similar balance requirement between the spontaneous and induced scattering processes, which are nonlinear. In spite of the low velocity modification of the electron distribution function, it is shown that the resulting asymptotic velocity power-law index α, where fe ∼ v -α is close to the average index observed during the quiet-time solar wind condition, i.e., whereas αaverage 6.69, according to observation. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved..
Ahmed D.,Forman Christian College
African journal of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicines : AJTCAM / African Networks on Ethnomedicines | Year: 2012
As part of our search for natural antioxidants, this work presents an evaluation of antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of Oxalis corniculata and its sub-fractions in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water. The total phenolic contents in terms of μg of gallic acid equivalents per mg of dried mass were approximately 21.0, 28.2, 34.5, 162.0, 70.0, and 49.2 in methanolic, hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanolic and aqueous fractions respectively, while the flavonoid contents in these solvents were 362.4, 214.1, 317.1, 177.1, 98.8 and 53.5 respectively in terms of μg of rutin per mg of dried mass. In DPPH assay, the ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest free radical scavenging activity, 24.0% with 1 mg/mL concentration. The second strongest fraction was chloroform (21.5%). The EC50 and TEC50 values of the methanolic extract were 3.63 mg/mL and 23 min respectively. The FRAP values in terms of μg of ascorbic acid equivalents per mg of dried mass for these solvents were 288.0, 1705.3, 437.1, 72.0, 28.0, and 44.0 respectively while total antioxidant activity measured by phosphomolybdate assay in terms of μg of ascorbic acid equivalents per mg of dried mass were 50.0, 117.0, 78.6, 57.8, 3.4 and 8.3 respectively. All the samples showed remarkable ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation exhibiting much better and sustainable peroxidation inhibitory activity than the standard butylated hydroxyanisole.
Al-Rashida M.,COMSATS Institute of Information Technology |
Iqbal J.,Forman Christian College
Medicinal Research Reviews | Year: 2014
The modulatory role of extracellular nucleotides and adenosine in relevance to purinergic cell signaling mechanisms has long been known and is an object of much research worldwide. These extracellular nucleotides are released by a variety of cell types either innately or as a response to patho-physiological stress or injury. A variety of surface-located ecto-nucleotidases (of four major types; nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases or NTPDases, nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterases or NPPs, alkaline phosphatases APs or ALPs, and ecto-5′-nucleotidase or e5NT) are responsible for meticulously controlling the availability of these important signaling molecules (at their respective receptors) in extracellular environment and are therefore crucial for maintaining the integrity of normal cell functioning. Overexpression of many of these ubiquitous ecto-enzymes has been implicated in a variety of disorders including cell adhesion, activation, proliferation, apoptosis, and degenerative neurological and immunological responses. Selective inhibition of these ecto-enzymes is an area that is currently being explored with great interest and hopes remain high that development of selective ecto-nucleotidase inhibitors will prove to have many beneficial therapeutic implications. The aim of this review is to emphasize and focus on recent developments made in the field of inhibitors of ecto-nucleotidases and to highlight their structure activity relationships wherever possible. Most recent and significant advances in field of NTPDase, NPP, AP, and e5NT inhibitors is being discussed in detail in anticipation of providing prolific leads and relevant background for research groups interested in synthesis of selective ecto-nucleotidase inhibitors. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Chughtai A.A.,Forman Christian College
Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied | Year: 2016
This study investigated the mediating role of organizational identification and psychological safety in the relationship between servant leadership and two employee outcomes: employee voice and negative feedback seeking behavior. The sample for this study comprised of 174 full-time employees drawn from a large food company based in Pakistan. Results showed that organizational identification and psychological safety partially mediated the effects of servant leadership on voice and negative feedback seeking behavior. The theoretical and practical implications of this research are discussed. © 2016 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
Chughtai A.A.,Forman Christian College
Safety Science | Year: 2015
This study explored the effects of ethical leadership on two dimensions of safety performance: safety compliance and safety participation. Additionally, it sought to examine the mediating role of job autonomy and self-efficacy in these relationships. Sample for this study comprised of 179 doctors who were working on a full-time basis in a large public sector hospital located in Pakistan. Results showed that as theorized, job autonomy and self-efficacy fully mediated the effects of ethical leadership on safety compliance and safety participation. The implications of these findings for research and practice are discussed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.