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The Forman Christian College University , is a private chartered university located in the residential area of Lahore, Punjab, Pakistan.Founded in 1864 by American Christian activist and academician Dr. Charles William Forman, it gained "university status" granted by the Government and offers various academic programmes for undergraduate and post-graduate studies. Since its establishment it has reputed itself as one of the premier institution of higher learning in the country in various academic disciplines. As of 2013, the university is currently rank as one of the top institution in "general category" by the HEC.Since its establishment, the university is noted for producing notable scholars, intellectuals, and statesmen who played vital role in the affairs of Pakistan. In addition, the university is one of few quite institution that offers an American-style education. Wikipedia.


Shah S.A.,Forman Christian College | Hashmi M.U.,The University of Lahore | Alam S.,Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
Materials Science and Engineering C | Year: 2011

The magnetic and heat generating properties of the ferrimagnetic zinc-ferrite containing bioactive glass ceramics have been enhanced by aligning magnetic field, without any compositional or micro-structural changes in the material. The glass ceramics were heated to 600 °C and cooled in an aligning magnetic field of 1 T. Magnetically aligned samples were compared with the non-aligned samples. VSM measurements taken at 500 Oe showed that coercive force, remanance magnetization and hysteresis area increased for the aligned samples. This occurred because the aligning magnetic field setup an easy axis for the magnetic domains. After cooling, the domains were trapped and became stable along the direction of aligning field. Now stronger magnetic field was required to turn the domains away from their aligned positions. Thus magnetic properties were enhanced by the aligning magnetic field and it led to enhance the heat generation under magnetic induction furnace operating at 500 Oe and 60 kHz for 2 min. Data showed that maximum specific power loss and temperature increase after 2 min were 4.4 W/g and 6.3 °C respectively for the aligned sample of maximum zinc-ferrite crystalline content having pseudo single domain crystalline structure. The glass ceramics were immersed in simulated body fluid over weeks. FTIR, SEM and EDX results indicated the growth of precipitated Hydroxyapatite suggesting the bioactivity of the materials. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Ahmad L.,Allama Iqbal Open University | Aslam M.,Forman Christian College | Jun C.-H.,Pohang University of Science and Technology
Transactions of the Institute of Measurement and Control | Year: 2014

A control chart, being an important tool of statistical process control, has been used for process monitoring and detection of any out-of-control process situation. In this paper, the Shewhart X̄ chart, also known as the traditional control chart, in combination with the process capability index Cp proposed by Subramani and Balamurali, is presented under the repetitive sampling scheme. The optimal design parameters of the proposed control chart are calculated. The performance of the proposed control chart is evaluated through the average run lengths (ARLs). Numerical tables have been constructed for the purpose of comparing the in-control ARL and the out-of-control ARL with the single sampling scheme. The findings of the study show that the newly suggested sampling scheme is better than the existing single sampling scheme in detection of mean shift of the process. © The Author(s) 2013. Source


Aslam M.,Forman Christian College | Lio Y.L.,University of South Dakota | Jun C.-H.,Pohang University of Science and Technology
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology | Year: 2013

Under truncated life tests, two types of repetitive acceptance sampling plans are proposed to ensure the quality of products in terms of percentile lifetime when the lifetime follows the Burr type XII distribution. The proposed acceptance sampling plans, including the ordinary repetitive acceptance sampling plan and the repetitive version of a group acceptance sampling plan, are developed to meet producer's and consumer's risks at two specified lifetime percentiles, simultaneously. Useful tables have been established for a wide range of Burr type XII distributions which include the log-logistic distribution for practical utilization. Finally, some examples are provided for illustration. © 2013 Springer-Verlag London. Source


Zaheer S.,University of Maryland University College | Zaheer S.,Forman Christian College | Yoon P.H.,University of Maryland University College
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2013

A recent series of papers put forth a self-consistent theory of an asymptotically steady-state electron distribution function and Langmuir turbulence intensity. The theory was developed in terms of the κ distribution which features Maxwellian low-energy electrons and a non-Maxwellian energetic power-law tail component. The present paper discusses a generalized κ distribution that features a Davydov-Druyvesteyn type of core component and an energetic power-law tail component. The physical motivation for such a generalization is so that the model may reflect the influence of low-energy electrons interacting with low-frequency kinetic Alfvénic turbulence as well as with high-frequency Langmuir turbulence. It is shown that such a solution and the accompanying Langmuir wave spectrum rigorously satisfy the balance requirement between the spontaneous and induced emission processes in both the particle and wave kinetic equations, and approximately satisfy the similar balance requirement between the spontaneous and induced scattering processes, which are nonlinear. In spite of the low velocity modification of the electron distribution function, it is shown that the resulting asymptotic velocity power-law index α, where fe ∼ v -α is close to the average index observed during the quiet-time solar wind condition, i.e., whereas αaverage 6.69, according to observation. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.. Source


Ahmed D.,Forman Christian College
African journal of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicines : AJTCAM / African Networks on Ethnomedicines | Year: 2012

As part of our search for natural antioxidants, this work presents an evaluation of antioxidant activities of methanolic extract of Oxalis corniculata and its sub-fractions in hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water. The total phenolic contents in terms of μg of gallic acid equivalents per mg of dried mass were approximately 21.0, 28.2, 34.5, 162.0, 70.0, and 49.2 in methanolic, hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanolic and aqueous fractions respectively, while the flavonoid contents in these solvents were 362.4, 214.1, 317.1, 177.1, 98.8 and 53.5 respectively in terms of μg of rutin per mg of dried mass. In DPPH assay, the ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest free radical scavenging activity, 24.0% with 1 mg/mL concentration. The second strongest fraction was chloroform (21.5%). The EC50 and TEC50 values of the methanolic extract were 3.63 mg/mL and 23 min respectively. The FRAP values in terms of μg of ascorbic acid equivalents per mg of dried mass for these solvents were 288.0, 1705.3, 437.1, 72.0, 28.0, and 44.0 respectively while total antioxidant activity measured by phosphomolybdate assay in terms of μg of ascorbic acid equivalents per mg of dried mass were 50.0, 117.0, 78.6, 57.8, 3.4 and 8.3 respectively. All the samples showed remarkable ability to inhibit lipid peroxidation exhibiting much better and sustainable peroxidation inhibitory activity than the standard butylated hydroxyanisole. Source

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