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Dwivedi P.,University of Georgia | Johnson E.,Atlantic Consulting | Greene D.,University of Georgia | Baker S.,Forisk Consulting
Bioenergy Research | Year: 2016

This study estimates the abatement cost of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for a unit of electricity generated in the UK from wood pellets imported from Southern USA. We assumed that only pulpwood obtained from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantations was used for manufacturing exported wood pellets. The use of imported wood pellets for electricity generation could save at least 69.9 % of GHG emissions relative to coal-based electricity in the UK. The average unit production cost of electricity generated from imported wood pellets (US$222.3 MWh−1) was higher by 30.0 % than the unit production cost of electricity generated from coal (US$171.0 MWh−1) without any price support. In the presence of payments from the established price support mechanisms of Renewable Obligation Certificates (ROCs) and Levy Exemption Certificates (LECs), the unit production cost of electricity generated from imported wood pellets (US$142.9 MWh−1) was lower by about 16.0 % than the unit production cost of electricity generated from coal. Policy makers should consider 1 MWh of electricity generated from imported wood pellets equivalent to 0.58 ROCs or 0.71 ROCs in presence and absence of payments from LECs, respectively. This will ensure zero abatement cost and lead to economic efficiency in reducing GHG emissions. However, a more in-depth analysis focusing on the market risks for power-generating companies and other wood pellet supply chains is required before modifying existing equivalency factors for ensuring continuous use of imported wood pellets for displacing coal-based electricity in the UK. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York


Mendell B.C.,Forisk Consulting | Sydor T.,Forisk Consulting | Lang A.H.,Forisk Consulting
International Forestry Review | Year: 2011

This research details the concerns and requirements of investment managers considering international timberland investments. It also summarizes investor questions with respect to considering timberland investments in an emerging timberland market, in this case Colombia. Twenty (20) senior managers and investors across thirteen (13) firms and institutions involved in executing timberland investment strategies were interviewed. Respondents differ somewhat in how they identify and evaluate international investment risks. In part, these differences reflect alternate client objectives and differences in the experience and strategies of the TIMOs themselves. In addition to the need for available timberlands for investment purposes, key requirements for international investments highlighted across interviewees included country economic and political stability; available and growing markets for wood; and respect for and enforceability of contracts and property rights.


Lang A.H.,Forisk Consulting | Mendell B.C.,Forisk Consulting
Journal of Forestry | Year: 2012

Wood procurement teams in the forest products industry must simultaneously meet the raw material cost, quality, and volume requirements of their firms while accounting for long-term raw material sustainability and satisfying environmental performance standards. This study synthesizes 208 published studies on forest operations efficiency and environmental improvements to (1) specify applicable forest operations costs and environmental savings, (2) highlight areas of synergy between operational efficiency gains/cost savings and environmental improvements, and (3) identify critical gaps in the existing literature to help prioritize future research. This research synthesis highlights several areas of operational and environmental synergies related to forest harvesting, log transportation, and the storage of wood raw materials. In comparing research across topics and US regions, this study specified "practical" and "relevance" tests for identifying key research gaps. Areas identified for additional research were specific questions related to biomass harvesting and trucking logistics. © 2012 by the Society of American Foresters.


Mendell B.C.,Forisk Consulting | Lang A.H.,Forisk Consulting | Caldwell W.,North Carolina State University | Garrett D.L.,Forisk Consulting
Journal of Forestry | Year: 2015

Forest certification programs provide standards for multiple aspects of forest management, including the use of chemicals for mitigating competition and forest pests. The three most common programs in the United States—the American Tree Farm System, the Forest Stewardship Council, and the Sustainable Forestry Initiative—all address chemical use. To evaluate relative impacts under different certification schemes, this research estimates productivity and economic implications of a scenario resembling management on nonindustrial private forestland. The research compares estimates from a mechanical-only treatment and two levels of chemical treatments. Results indicate that strict chemical use restrictions lead to lower levels of forest productivity and reduce potential financial returns. The mechanical scenario generated 6% less volume than the baseline scenario, and the more chemically intensive scenario generated 12% more volume than the baseline. The estimated net present value of the mechanical scenario (no chemical use) was 12% less than the baseline. © 2015, Society of American Foresters. All rights reserved.

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