Forestry Tasmania is a forest management corporation established by an Act of Parliament and wholly owned by the Government of Tasmania, Australia.Under the State of Tasmania's Forestry Act 1920, Forestry Tasmania is mandated to manage 1.5 million hectares of state forest as multiple use forest. Sustainable yield logging is currently permitted in approximately one-half of this area. The remainder is reserved and managed for other values such as conservation and recreation.Forestry Tasmania is certified under the Australian Forestry Standard, which is endorsed by the Programme for the Endorsement of Forest Certification.Forestry Tasmania's operations are overseen by a Board of Management, which is responsible to the Tasmanian Minister for Forests and Treasurer. Wikipedia.
Gitau C.W.,Charles Sturt University |
Bashford R.,Forestry Tasmania |
Carnegie A.J.,Australian Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries |
Gurr G.M.,Charles Sturt University
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2013
Bark beetles (Curculionidae) have assumed increasing prominence as pests of coniferous trees and wood products. Some species of Ips and Dendroctonus introduce blue stain fungi that cause damage to trees and downgrading of wood products. In forest ecosystems, bark beetles respond to fire, frost, drought, lightening or windstorms, all of which can initiate tree stress. Silvicultural practices that improve tree vigour are widely used to manage these pests. Pruning, disposing of infested limbs and salvage logging following storm damage are also frequently employed. Systemic insecticide applications can be used to protect trees from beetle attack for several months to a year. Insecticides are also frequently used to protect trees of high value in landscape settings, seedlings in nurseries and can be used as bole sprays where trees may be treated during outbreaks Insecticides are, however, often uneconomical in natural and commercial forests, particularly in broad acre landscapes. Options for better management could involve the wider use of semiochemicals (pheromones and kairomones) that influence beetle behaviour such as feeding, mating and oviposition. Currently, semiochemicals are used extensively for monitoring bark beetle populations and for optimising timing of silviculture treatments. Semiochemical use for protecting trees using 'push-pull' strategies are promising and, in some cases, effective strategies for control of scolytines. Recent research shows that volatiles from unsuitable and non-host tree species could impede bark beetle attack on conifer trees. Applications of bark beetle pheromone components, such as verbenone, when used as a blend with non-host volatiles can deter scolytine bark beetles from trees. The use of semiochemicals and non-host volatiles in the management of bark beetles is, however, complicated when other insect pests and their associates are present together with bark beetles. Effective, management of bark beetles under these circumstances will depend on a better understanding of the key chemical ecology stimuli of relevance to each pest. We review semiochemicals of bark beetles and their use as interruptants or inhibitors when used together with non-host- volatiles. Implications of using semiochemicals when scolytine bark beetles attack trees together with other tree pests is discussed with an example of interactions between a wood wasp and an Ips species presented. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.
Jaskierniak D.,University of Tasmania |
Lane P.N.J.,University of Melbourne |
Lane P.N.J.,Forestry Tasmania |
Robinson A.,University of Melbourne |
Lucieer A.,University of Tasmania
Remote Sensing of Environment | Year: 2011
Discrete Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data is used to stratify a multilayered eucalyptus forest and characterise the structure of the vertical profile. We present a methodology that may prove useful for a very broad range of forest management applications, particularly for timber inventory evaluation and forest growth modelling. In this study, we use LiDAR data to stratify a multilayered eucalyptus forest and characterise the structure of specific vegetation layers for forest hydrology research, as vegetation dynamics influence a catchment's streamflow yield. A forest stand's crown height, density, depth, and closure, influence aerodynamic properties of the forest structure and the amount of transpiring leaf area, which in turn determine evapotranspiration rates. We present a methodology that produces canopy profile indices of understorey and overstorey vegetation using mixture models with a wide range of theoretical distribution functions. Mixture models provide a mechanism to summarise complex canopy attributes into a short list of parameters that can be empirically analysed against stand characteristics. Few studies have explored theoretical distribution functions to represent the vertical profile of vegetation structure in LiDAR data. All prior studies have focused on a Weibull distribution function, which is unimodal. In a complex native forest ecosystem, the form of the distribution of LiDAR points may be highly variable between forest types and age classes. We compared 44 probability distributions within a two component mixture model to determine the most suitable bimodal distributions for representing LiDAR density estimates of Mountain Ash forests in south-eastern Australia. An elimination procedure identified eleven candidate distributions for representing the eucalyptus component of the mixture model. We demonstrate the methodology on a sample of plots to predict overstorey stand volumes and basal area, and understorey basal area of 18-, 37-, and 70-year old Mountain Ash forest with variable density classes. The 70-year old forest has been subjected to a range of treatments including: thinning of the eucalyptus layer with two distinct retention rates, removal of the understorey, and clear felling of patches that have 37year old regenerating forest. We demonstrate that the methodology has clear potential, as observed versus predicted values of eucalyptus basal area and stand volume were highly correlated, with bootstrap based r 2 ranging from 0.61 to 0.89 and 0.67 to 0.88 respectively. Non-eucalyptus basal area r 2 ranged from 0.5 to 0.91. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.
Grove S.J.,Forestry Tasmania |
Forster L.,Forestry Tasmania |
Forster L.,University of Tasmania
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2011
The first decade of sequential and cyclical sampling of saproxylic beetles by means of eclector traps on 12 freshly-felled Eucalyptus obliqua logs at Warra, Tasmania has allowed documentation of a taxonomically and ecologically diverse fauna present in such logs in their early decompositional state. About half of all species are apparently undescribed-a much higher proportion than in most temperate regions. The distribution of individuals among species is typically skewed, with most species being rare and few being common. Neither obligately nor facultatively saproxylic beetles dominate the fauna, but predators predominate over other larval feeding guilds, and-in accordance with ecological theory for early successional habitats-winged species predominate over functionally flightless species. There is some suggestion that trophic structure changed over the period of the study, with the proportion of functionally flightless species increasing. The fauna shows strong seasonality. While the summer months represent the peak of occurrence for most species (in keeping with the cool-temperate climate), every month has its own particular complement of species, such that a strong seasonal cycle in assemblage composition is apparent throughout the year. The timings of emergence peaks vary among the years represented in this study by up to 2 months, with the year of latest emergence corresponding to that with the lowest mean annual maximum temperature; no signature of climate change is evident in the data-set. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
A decade of change in the saproxylic beetle fauna of eucalypt logs in the Warra long-term log-decay experiment, Tasmania. 2. Log-size effects, succession, and the functional significance of rare species
Grove S.J.,Forestry Tasmania |
Forster L.,Forestry Tasmania |
Forster L.,University of Tasmania
Biodiversity and Conservation | Year: 2011
The first decade of sequential and cyclical sampling of the saproxylic beetles of twelve freshly felled Eucalyptus obliqua logs at Warra, Tasmania has allowed comparisons between larger-diameter mature and smaller-diameter regrowth log-classes and between successive sampling cycles and years; and consideration of the interplay between these two aspects. The two log-classes support different assemblages, with the mature log-class hosting consistently more species, more unique species, and proportionally more obligately saproxylic species. Assemblages change seasonally and year-to-year, demonstrating succession. While changes in the assemblages of mature and regrowth log-classes follow similar trajectories, they remain distinct at every point in time. These differences remain apparent when considering sub-sets of the assemblages based on the rarity of the species involved, their flightedness, saproxylicity and larval feeding guild. This study suggests a need to incorporate the conservation of coarse woody debris derived from mature trees into production forestry practices. There is a particular need to devise silvicultural and/or planning systems that cater for the retention and long-term recruitment of mature trees, since these are the only source of the larger-diameter logs that were identified in this study as having particular ecological value. Through continuing the Warra long-term log-decay experiment over the next century or more, a more complete picture of the saproxylic beetle fauna will progressively emerge, together with a better understanding of the management requirements of the fauna. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Wardlaw T.,Forestry Tasmania
Tasforests | Year: 2011
Plantations of Eucalyptus globulus and E. nitens have been developed on Tasmanian State forest, with their combined area currently totalling 50,246 ha. The climatic envelope for this plantation estate was described by spatial interpolation of long-term climatic averages from an array of weather stations, using as parameters the mean minimum temperature of the coolest month, and effective rainfall (rainfall minus evaporation). Reanalysis of existing trial data suggested that growth reduction in E. globulus would begin to occur on sites with a mean minimum temperature of the coolest month below 1.8°C, and this threshold was thus chosen to segregate warmer areas of Tasmania suitable for planting either E. globulus or E. nitens, from cooler areas suitable only for planting E. nitens. This segregation based on temperature predicts that 53% by area of the current E. nitens and E. globulus plantation estate on State forest (26,607 ha) is suitable to plant either E. globulus or E. nitens. However, only 29% of this area is currently planted to E. globulus, a proportion which could potentially be increased to take advantage of the superior wood properties of E. globulus. There was strong overall agreement between segregation based on the 1.8°C temperature threshold, and segregation based on the previous altitudinal cut-off for E. globulus of 350 m, with 87% of the State forest eucalypt plantation estate being classified similarly under both systems. However, there were significant differences among State forest Districts in the relationship between the mean minimum temperature of the coolest month and altitude. The altitude corresponding to the 1.8°C temperature threshold was substantially below 350 metres in Districts at a more southerly latitude or with plantations situated at greater distances from the coast. Two-thirds of the disparity between the temperature and altitudinal segregation (4,204 ha) was due to sites colder than the 1.8°C temperature threshold occurring at altitudes below 350 m. Currently 49% of this plantation area is under E. globulus, although the sites could be more suitable for E. nitens.
Neyland M.G.,Forestry Tasmania |
Jarman S.J.,Forestry Tasmania
Australian Journal of Botany | Year: 2011
Impacts on the understorey vegetation of a range of silvicultural alternatives to clearfelling in lowland Eucalyptus obliqua wet forest were studied over a decade in the Warra silvicultural systems trial in southern Tasmania. The treatments were clearfell with understorey islands, patchfell, stripfell, dispersed retention, aggregated retention, and single-tree/small- group selection. High intensity burning, low intensity burning and no burning were variously applied as part of these treatments. Three understorey types were studied, including one wet sclerophyll community and two rainforest communities. Wherever burning occurred across the research trial, the regenerating vegetation was floristically wet sclerophyll with an incipient composition consistent with that of the pre-harvest wet sclerophyll community. Sites previously occupied by rainforest understoreys retained occasional rainforest elements, but the regeneration was overwhelmingly sclerophyll in nature. There were no consistent differences in the floristic composition of the regenerating vegetation, after burning or harvesting disturbance, that could be attributed to the silvicultural system. However, field observations and the results of a related, subsequent study suggest that, in designing silvicultural trials similar to the present one, close attention should be paid to the size of quadrats in relation to the level at which disturbance impacts are operating. The response of the vegetation at edges created by the treatments, and in the undisturbed forest beyond, supports the finding that edge effects on the vascular flora extend for less than 10m into the undisturbed forest. © 2011 CSIRO.
Moroni M.T.,Forestry Tasmania
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2012
In Australia, a pervasive response to increasing atmospheric greenhouse gasses and the exchange of these gasses between the atmosphere and forests has been to focus on storing carbon (C) in forested landscapes. However, the amount of C stored and able to be stored in the landscape, which is often called carbon carrying capacity, is commonly over-estimated and over-emphasised. This occurs, in part, due to a focus on the continent's most C-rich forests when discussing landscape C storage or carbon carrying capacity, and by failing to account for wildfires that will prevent all forests from becoming old and C-rich. These effects on forest age-class structure and thus C-stocks, in the Australian landscape currently tend to be overlooked at the policy level. Underemphasised is the widely recognised role of wood products in greenhouse gas mitigation, both as a C-stock and by providing society with low emission products. Improving atmospheric outcomes will only be achieved if variation in landscape C stocks is accurately described and the full role of forests in greenhouse gas mitigation including the role of wood products is explored and reflected in policy. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Williams K.,University of Melbourne |
Williams K.,Forestry Tasmania
Landscape and Urban Planning | Year: 2011
This paper reports research undertaken to examine the relative public acceptance of rural land uses in two regions of southern Australia. Participants from Tasmania and southwest Western Australia completed a questionnaire about their views on the acceptability of ten traditional and nontraditional land uses in rural areas (n= 2167). Participants made clear evaluative distinctions between traditional agricultural land uses (cropping, grazing, horticulture, dairy), non-traditional 'green' land uses (wind farms and revegetation), plantations and rural residential development. Analysis of distribution of views suggested strong positive consensus regarding traditional agricultural and nontraditional 'green' land uses, but diverse and sometimes conflicting views regarding plantations and rural residential development. The findings clarify the relative public acceptance of land uses - both controversial and non-controversial - within the study areas, and suggest land use policies that distinguish between traditional agricultural land uses and non-traditional land uses are consistent with public perceptions. The findings also demonstrate that non-traditional land uses may be more acceptable in some regions and among some social groups than others, highlighting the significance of enabling local land use planning priorities. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Moroni M.T.,Forestry Tasmania
Australian Forestry | Year: 2013
The exchange of carbon, primarily as the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide, between forests and the atmosphere, gives forest managers opportunities to limit greenhouse gas emissions through forest management. Options available to forest managers to reduce greenhouse gas emissions include 1) storing carbon in landscapes, 2) storing carbon in wood products, and 3) providing society with a low-emissions resource (wood products) to substitute for alternative materials associated with larger emissions. To evaluate the trade-off between storing carbon in forests and providing society with wood products, the dynamics of each option must be understood. Here, the above options are explained using simple models analogous to reservoirs and safes. Reservoirs are used to represent dynamic systems, such as forest and wood product carbon stocks, and the irreversible substitution effect, where emissions are avoided through the use of wood, is shown as analogous to placing avoided emissions in a safe. © 2013 Institute of Foresters of Australia (IFA).
Grove S.J.,Forestry Tasmania
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2010
Carabid beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) were sampled with pitfall traps in central Tasmania to assess the conservation utility of wildlife habitat strips (WHS) in native high-altitude wet eucalypt forest. Sampling followed a Before-After, Control-Impact design, with replicated samples being collected at one control site and two treatment sites, both before harvesting and then again seven to eight years after the harvest that established the WHS. Catches of carabid beetles decreased in harvested areas, but there were great increases in species richness and gross changes in assemblage composition - largely attributable to the colonisation of young-forest specialist species. Assemblages in the control site remained essentially unchanged, and were dominated by mature-forest specialist species. Assemblages in the WHS changed little compared to their pre-harvest condition, but assemblage structure was slightly affected. In this particular landscape, WHS appear to effectively maintain carabid assemblages typical of intact mature native forest, at least in the short-term. A broader and longer-term assessment of the ecological performance of WHS across Tasmania would be required to assess the long-term viability of WHS as a conservation strategy for carabids and other species requiring mature forest. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.