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Li S.-F.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Su J.-R.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Liu W.-D.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Zhang Z.-J.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Liu Q.-Y.,Forestry Research Institute of Puer Municipality
Forest Research | Year: 2011

Vascular epiphytes are important components of species richness in monsoonal broad-leaved evergreen forest. Field data collection on vascular epiphytes was based on 0.81 hm2 plot (including 9 subplots) in different restoration stages (community of 15 years restoration (15 a), community of 30 years restoration (30 a)) and primary monsoonal broad-leaved evergreen forest distribute in Caiyanghe Nature Reserve, Yixiang Township and Xinfang reservoir, Pu'er city, Yun-nan, China. On the basis of analyzing vascular epiphytes species richness, abundance, distribution, similarity coefficient, the relationship between epiphytes and phorophytes was discussed. The results showed that: (1) 3116 vascular epiphytes, belonging to 22 species in 20 genera and 9 families were recorded in all plots. (2) The diversity of vascular epiphytes was low in restoration stages (15 a, 5 spp. and 30 a, 7 spp.) compared to primary forest (17 spp.). (3) The composition of epiphytic species in primary forests and the stand in restoration stages differed markedly: 15 a harboured no orchid species but more fern species and primary forest hold more orchid species. Probably the families occurring only in primary forest sites which the authors studied may be used as bioindicators to determine the degree of restoration in monsoonal broad-leaved evergreen forest. (4) The epiphyte abundance was also lower in restoration stages. The declines in species number and abundance as well as the differences in species composition were mainly due to the less diversified phorophyte structure and less differentiated microclimate in the disturbed and secondary vegetation compared to the primary forest. Sørensen coefficient between 15 a and primary forest was higher than that between 30 a and primary forest. (5) The vascular epiphytes were clumped horizontally in 3 community types. Vertically, vascular epiphytes of 15 a were mainly distributed at 0~5 m and that of primary forest was up to 20 m. (6) Both the richness and abundance of vascular epiphytes species were significantly positively correlated with host tree size but no correlation existed for restoration stages. Source


Li S.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Su J.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Liu W.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Zhang Z.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Liu Q.,Forestry Research Institute of Puer Municipality
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2011

Liana is important component of forest ecosystem, which usually affects restoration and succession of the communities. Relationship between liana and host tree has significant implications for forest conservation and sustainable management. Field data collection was based on 0. 81 hm2 plot (including 9 subplots) in different restoration stages (community of 15 years restoration (15 year), community of 30 years restoration (30 year) and primary monsoonal broad-leaved evergreen forest distribute in Caiyanghe nature reserve, Yixiang Township and Xinfang reservoir, Pu'er city, Yunnan, China. On the basis of analyzing liana species richness, density, abundance, size structure, diversity indices and the climbing mechanism in the different restoration period, the relationship between liana and host tree was discussed. The results shown that; 1292 climbing lianas (DBH ≥. 1cm), belonging to 64 species in 51 genera and 34 families were recorded in all plots. The liana richness, density (DBH <0. 1cm), basal area at breast height and mean based area at breast higher in primary forest were significantly higher than restoration s ages. There was no significant difference of density (DBH≥1cm), average DBH and average length between primary forest and 15 year, though both were significantly higher than that of 30 year. Species composition and DBH class distribution of lianas varied significantly in the three community types. Mucuna macrocarpa, Celastrus monospermus and Gnetum montanum are most abundant species. These species were found in all restoration stages and primary forest. Mucuna macrocarpa is an early success ional species which needs intensive light environment and Gnetum montanum is a late success ional species. Species-area curve showed that primary forest had higher species richness than l5 year and 30 year, which confirmed that primary forest played an important role in biodiversity conservation of lianas. Liana abundance decreased significantly while its DBH class increased. DBH of more than 95% lianas was less than 5cm. The lianas of large diameter class (DBH3≥10cm) were found only in primary forest and 30 year. One liana per host tree was most abundant in three community types. Host trees were more likely to be infested by lianas when their DBH was larger than 15cm in primary forest and liana-host tree relationship showed different trends in restoration stages. Large tree was more susceptible to be climbed by liana. There was a significant positive correlation (P < 0. 001) between the liana DBH and host tree DBH. DBH of liana increased with the growth of DBH of host tree in primary and 15 year. Stem twining caused more mechanical damage in 4 climbing ways, and the damage for primary forest were significantly lower than that for restoration stages. Density of tendril climber showed that primary forest was undergoing a dynamic process. Species composition and abundance change of root climber and hook climber can be used as an indicator to reflect restoration level of monsoonal broad-leaved evergreen forest of post-disturbance. Primary forest had more Piper flaviflorum than 15 year and 30 year and Fissistigma acuminatissimum did not appeare in the restoration stages. Deforestation is main factor that affects liana species composition and distribution and reduces lianas abundance and richness significantly. Restoration time has an important effect on regeneration of lianas. Source


Li S.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Li S.,Puer Forest Eco system Research Station | Su J.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Su J.,Puer Forest Eco system Research Station | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

The objectives of this study were to estimate changes of tree carbon (C) and soil organic carbon (SOC) stock following a conversion in land use, an issue that has been only insufficiently addressed. For this study, we examined a chronosequence of 2 to 54-year-old Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis plantations that replaced the original secondary coniferous forest (SCF) in Southwest China due to clearing. C stocks considered here consisted of tree, understory, litter, and SOC (0-1 m). The results showed that tree C stocks ranged from 0.02±0.001 Mg C ha-1 to 141.43±5.29 Mg C ha-1, and increased gradually with the stand age. Accumulation of tree C stocks occurred in 20 years after reforestaion and C stock level recoverd to SCF. The maximum of understory C stock was found in a 5-yearold stand (6.74±0.7 Mg C ha-1) with 5.8 times that of SCF, thereafter, understory C stock decreased with the growth of plantation. Litter C stock had no difference excluding effects of prescribed burning. Tree C stock exhibited a significant decline in the 2, 5-year-old stand following the conversion to plantation, but later, increased until a steady state-level in the 20, 26-year-old stand. The SOC stocks ranged from 81.08±10.13 Mg C ha-1 to 160.38±17.96 Mg C ha-1. Reforestation significantly decreased SOC stocks of plantation in the 2-year-old stand which lost 42.29 Mg C ha-1 in the 1 m soil depth compared with SCF by reason of soil disturbance from sites preparation, but then subsequently recovered to SCF level. SOC stocks of SCF had no significant difference with other plantation. The surface profile (0-0.1 m) contained s higher SOC stocks than deeper soil depth. C stock associated with tree biomass represented a higher proportion than SOC stocks as stand development proceeded. © 2015 Li et al. Source


Li S.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Liu W.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Su J.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Zhang Z.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Liu Q.,Forestry Research Institute of Puer Municipality
Shengtai Xuebao/ Acta Ecologica Sinica | Year: 2012

Seedling, made up of small individuals of woody plant species in the understorey, is an important component of many forests and considered as an important source for natural restoration in forest ecosystems. Simultaneously seedling plays an important role in the regeneration of numerous tree species. Based on space-for-time substitution method, we treated coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, secondary monsoon evergreen broad-leaved forest (MEBF), primary MEBF in the same area as three different stages of secondary succession of MEBF. Eight sampling plots representing the three different stages distribute in Caiyanghe nature reserve, surrounding the areas of Meizihu and Xinfang reservoir of Puer, in Yunnan Province, the southwest of China. We investigated seedling regeneration characteristics of woody plants of MEBF during secondary succession by looking at species composition, density, height level and the relationship with environmental factors. Overall, we found 2014 individuals of woody seedlings belonging to 101 species (dominated by understory tree species) in the eight plots covering 144-m2 area. The species richness of tree seedling, shrub seedling and liana seedling were 50, 29 and 22 respectively, and their corresponding individuals were 1499, 299 and 216. Tree seedling was the main component of woody plant seedling, such as Castanopsis echidnocarpa. Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis are dominant species in coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, however, their seedlings rarely appeared in the understory. The pine seedling stages need more light than shade-tolerant species which can conserve seedling bank in understory and waited for appropriate chance to regeneration. The woody plant seedling density of coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest, secondary and mature MEBF was 183±5. 69, 240±20. 31 and 372. 5±4. 5 individuals per 18m2. As succession progresses, the density of total woody seedlings, tree seedlings and liana seedlings all increased, while the density of shrub seedlings did not change significantly. Celastrus virens as a liana was particularly conspicuous in mature MEBF. Species richness of liana seedlings tended to increase, while species richness of tree seedlings and shrub seedlings remained relatively stable along the succession gradient. The Shannon-Wiener index of woody seedlings was significantly lower in primary MEBF than those in mixed forest and secondary MEBF. The abundance of woody seedlings in secondary and primary MEBF decreased with the increase of height level, while in mixed forest, the abundance of woody seedlings form a unimodal pattern with peak at 20 cm. Species richness, however, showed consistent (increasing or decreasing) pattern with the increase of height level in all these forest types. Distribution of woody seedlings abundance concentrated in 0-20 cm in the three community types. Woody seedlings species richness of mature MEBF was significantly lower than coniferous and broad-leaved mixed forest when height level was at I and II. Sørensen index indicated a close link between tree and liana seedlings and the species composition of the community. Moreover, tree seedling density distribution was significantly negatively correlated with the slope of the plot, while shrub seedling density was significantly positively related to soil pH. Source


Li S.-F.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Li S.-F.,The Puer Forest Eco system Research Station | Su J.-R.,Chinese Academy of Forestry | Su J.-R.,The Puer Forest Eco system Research Station | And 8 more authors.
Forest Research | Year: 2015

Taking three stand age-class(immature forest, near-mature forest and over-mature forest) of Pinus kesiya var. langbiannesis plantation and nearby green broad-leaved forest, primary coniferous forest as contrast in Pu'er city, Yunnan province. We discussed that the impacts on afforestation for size and spatial distribution of soil organic carbon and nitrogen stocks of Pinus kesiya var. langbiannesis plantation.The results show that soil organic carbon content, nitrogen content and C:N gradually decreased with increase of soil layer thickness in different forest types. Soil organic carbon and nitrogen content in the over-mature forest were significantly higher than that of other forest types as the soil layer deepen and soil organic carbon and nitrogen content of topsoil in the near-mature foretst is significantly lower than that immature forest and over-mature forest. Tree layer carbon stocks of Pinus kesiya var. langbiannesis plantation increased with stand age development, moreover, tree layer carbon stocks in the over-mature forest was significantly higher than other forest types. Afforestation had no significant effect on soil nitrogen stocks, and the soil organic carbon stocks increased, then decreased and recovered the level of green broad-leaved forest and primary coniferous forest with the stand age development. Simultaneously, soil organic carbon and nitrogen stocks decreased with the increase of soil layers depth(0-60 cm). The relative Change rate of soil organic carbon and nitrogen stock of immature and over-mature forest were higher than near-mature forest with stand age development compared with the green broad-leaved and primary coniferous forest, and the relative change rate of soil organic carbon and nirtrogen stock of near-mature forest had obviously net reduction. Artificial reforestation of priamry coniferous forest can accumulate more soil organic carbon and nitrogen stocks than green broad-leaved forest. there were a significant and extremely significant positive correlation between soil moisture and soil organic carbon stocks in the different soil layer depth. © 2015, Chinese Academy of Forestry. All right reserved. Source

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