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Fadeyi S.A.,Tennessee State University | Fadeyi S.A.,Meharry Medical College | Fadeyi O.O.,Tennessee State University | Fadeyi O.O.,Harvard University | And 3 more authors.
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: Plants that are used as traditional medicine represent a relevant pool for selecting plant candidates that may have anticancer properties. In this study, the ethnomedicinal approach was used to select several medicinal plants native to Nigeria, on the basis of their local or traditional uses. The collected plants were then evaluated for cytoxicity.Methods: The antitumor activity of methanolic extracts obtained from 24 of the selected plants, were evaluated in vitro on five human cancer cell lines.Results: Results obtained from the plants screened indicate that 18 plant extracts of folk medicine exhibited promising cytotoxic activity against human carcinoma cell lines. Erythrophleum suaveolens (Guill. & Perr.) Brenan was found to demonstrate potent anti-cancer activity in this study exhibiting IC50 = 0.2-1.3 μg/ml.Conclusions: Based on the significantly potent activity of some plants extracts reported here, further studies aimed at mechanism elucidation and bio-guided isolation of active anticancer compounds is currently underway. © 2013 Fadeyi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Olasunkanmi T.O.,Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria | Akinrinde E.A.,University of Ibadan
International Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2016

Proper fertilizer nutrient management through adequate utilization of the residual value coupled with healthy crop rotation contributes significantly to sustainable crop production. This study was conducted to evaluate the direct and residual effects of two rock phosphate (RP) materials on two contrasting soils previously planted with either the cereal crop or the leguminous crop. The effectiveness of the RP materials as substitute for the conventional P fertilizers was evaluated using single superphosphate as reference at the Department of Agronomy, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. The experiments were 2 × 2 × 4 factorial in completely randomized design. The test crops in the first cropping performed better on the slightly acidic loamy sand than on the strongly acidic sandy clay loam. Performance of each crop was improved by P supply in the first and second cropping. Single superphosphate proved to be more efficient than the RPs in the first cropping but not as effective as MRP in the second cropping. In the second cropping, sorghum performed better on the soil previously cropped to cowpea while Morocco RP had the highest residual effect among the P-fertilizer sources. It is evident that rock phosphates are better substitutes to the conventional phosphorus fertilizers due to their long term residual effect in soils. The positive effects of healthy rotation of crops as well as the negative effects of low soil pH are also quite obvious. © 2016 Tola Omolayo Olasunkanmi and Ezekiel Akinkunmi Akinrinde.

Ugwu M.A.,Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria | Omoloye A.A.,University of Ibadan
Journal of Entomology | Year: 2014

The effect of net barrier and synthetic insecticides on Phytolyma lata infestation, growth and survival of Milicia excelsa seedlings was investigated during the year 2010-2011 in Ibadan Southwest Nigeria. In a complete randomized design with three replications, a 2 m high netted barrier were laid out in unit plots of 15×15 m2 using five treatments: Blue net+dimethoate+carbofuran, Green net+dimethoate+cabofuran, Blue net+dimethoate, Green net+carbofuran and dimethoate only (control). Plant height, stem diameter, number of branches, numbers of galls, Pytolyma lata density, plant mortality and survival of Milicia seedling were recorded at monthly interval for two years. The treatments showed a significant difference (p<0.05) over the control. The net barrier plants were free from P. lata infestation 12 months after planting. The combined treatments of blue net barrier, dimethoate and carbofuran recorded least number of galls (7.89%) on Milicia seedlings while combined treatments of green net, dimethoate and carbofuran recorded least population density of P. lata (13.59%). There was no significant difference (p<0.05) between the combined treatments of blue and green barrier nets on the plant growth, although blue net+dimethoate+carbofuran recorded highest plant height and stem diameter with mean of 122.50 cm and 1.03 mm, respectively. Integrated treated plots recorded 100% seedling survival while control plot recorded 54% seedling survival after two years. Integration of net barrier with carbofuran and dimethoate is economical and should be adopted for successful establishment of Milicia plantation. © 2014 Academic Journals Inc.

Ugwu J.A.,Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria | Omoloye A.A.,University of Ibadan
Journal of Entomology | Year: 2014

Iroko gall bug, Phytolyma lata (Homoptera; Psylidae) is a major insect pests militating against cultivation of Milicia exceslsa (Iroko) in many parts of West Africa. The reproductive and developmental biology was studied to give an insight on the management approach that could be adopted for it. The study was conducted on 6 month-old iroko seedlings in the laboratory following standard procedure at 27-32±0.3°C and 75-80% relative humidity and 12:12 photoperiod. Developmental period, sex ratio, fecundity, oviposition period and adult longevity were assessed. Adult females Phytolyma lata were oviparous under laboratory condition with; pre-oviposition period (1.40±0.54 days), oviposition periods (4.00±1.22 days), fecundity (41.20±5.35/female), incubation period (5.8±0.54 days) and 95% egg viability. There were five nymph instar stages. The body width and head width of female were significantly larger than male (p>0.05).The average growth rate for the five instars was 1.48. The average life cycle of Phytolyma lata was 17.55±0.97 days and the sex ratio was 1:1.45 in favour of females. There was significant (p<0.05) correlation (r = 0.973) between the stages of nymphal development and the head width. Mated and unmated male lived significantly (p<0.05) shorter than mated female unmated female under laboratory condition. © 2014 Academic Journals Inc.

Ajala O.O.,Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria | Ogunsanwo O.Y.,University of Ibadan
Journal of Tropical Forest Science | Year: 2011

Sourcing of choice timber species is becoming increasingly difficult in the forests of West Africa including Nigeria. There is a need to provide alternative species by investigating the technical qualities of species that are hitherto not harvested. Six trees of Aningeria robusta were sampled at the base, 10, 30, 50, 70 and 90% of merchantable length and partitioned into the inner, middle and outer wood along the radial plane. Specific gravity (SG) and selected mechanical properties, namely, modulus of rupture (MOR), compressive strength parallel to grain (MCS) and impact bending (IB) were investigated. Data were analysed using analysis of variance. The overall mean SG was 0.44, while the mean values for MOR, MCS and IB were 89.05 N mm -2, 27.45 N mm -2 and 0.2 m respectively. Significant variations existed between sampling heights in SG and MOR, while variations in MCS and IB were not significant along the bole. For all properties investigated, no significant variation was found from the inner to the outer wood. The wood properties of this species indicate that it has the potential to substitute some popular species in the market. Its radial and axial uniformity may be exploited in marketing strategy. © Forest Research Institute Malaysia.

Dawodu F.A.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | Dawodu F.A.,University of Ibadan | Ayodele O.,CAS Institute of Process Engineering | Ayodele O.,University of Ibadan | And 4 more authors.
Applied Energy | Year: 2014

Interest in biodiesel research has increased over the years due to diminishing petroleum reserves but biodiesel has to be derived from non-edible oils in order to avoid the competition with food supply. Here, we report a one step catalytic conversion of non-edible seed oil, Calophyllum inophyllum with free fatty acid of 15% into biodiesel over biomass-derived catalysts. The effective catalysts were prepared by incomplete carbonization of carbon materials under inert atmosphere and then SO3H groups were introduced to obtain catalysts whose activities are comparable to conventional acid catalysts. At the optimized conditions, high conversion (99%) was achieved. The stability of the catalysts was also investigated. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Fadele O.K.,Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria | Aremu A.K.,University of Ibadan
Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food | Year: 2016

Moringa oleifera seeds, the crop of interest in this work is an oil bearing seed which is a viable source of biodiesel. Moringa seed is an oil bearing seed with great potentials and this has necessitated the development of a machine that can be used to shell the seed. In this work, moringa seed shelling machine was designed and constructed. The major components of the machine include hopper, Tangential Impact shelling Device (TISD), screen, fan compartment and outlets for both the kernels and shells. The performance evaluation of the machine was carried out. The machine was tested by varying the moisture content of the seed from 8.43% (w.b.) to 34.59% (w.b.) at five moisture levels (viz. 8.43, 11.38, 23.69, 29.56 and 34.59%) while dependent parameters such as machine capacity, shelling efficiency, percentage whole kernel recovered, percentage broken kernel recovered, percentage unshelled seeds and overall machine efficiency were determined. The machine capacity, shelling efficiency and overall efficiency were found to have maximum values of 5.39 kg/hr, 86.00% and 57.98% respectively at different moisture content levels while the percentage whole kernel recovered, broken kernel recovered and unshelled seed recovered were found to be 52.38%, 23.00% and 7.67% respectively at various moisture content levels. The values of parameters obtained showed the varying effects of moisture content on the performance of the machine when using TISD for shelling moringa seed. © 2016 Asian Agricultural and Biological Engineering Association.

Ariwaodo J.O.,Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria | Chukwuma E.C.,Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria | Adeniji K.A.,Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria
Ethnobotany Research and Applications | Year: 2012

A survey was conducted along Asamagbe stream bank of the Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan in order to assess the numerous medicinal plants present in the area. 98 species in 92 genera and 49 families were identified. Trees were most common (44%) among the plant life forms identified. Interviews were conducted with local people who reported medicinal uses. These uses are also supported from previous studies. We conclude that it is important to adopt conservation practices for sustainable plant use within and outside the study area in-view of the ecological function of the stream bank and the local therapeutic value of these plant resources.

Abi E.A.,Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria
Arboricultural Journal | Year: 2015

The study evaluates the potentials of Community Forestry (CF) techniques with a view to strengthening forest law enforcement and sustaining the collaboration of government and forest stakeholders in sustainable forest management. The method used for the study was a socio-economic survey among the stakeholders in Plateau/Montane, Savanna/Grassland, Rainforest and Mangrove ecological zones in Cross River State Nigeria to gather data through observations and conducting a survey questionnaire. A total of 1193 stakeholders responded; 785 (65.8%) were involved in CF. Analysis was undertaken using Chi-square which was significant (χ2 = 119.14) at p <.0005. Incentives needed for effective forest law enforcement revealed that Community Involvement in Decision Making (CIDM) had the highest odd ratio of 40461.51. This was followed by Training and Capacity Building (TCB); Financial Empowerment (FE); and Soft Loan (SL) with odd ratios of 4299.99, 152.45 and 31.38, respectively. The regression parameters in the model were statistically significant. CF has been used fairly as a tool for enforcing forest laws across the four ecological zones in Cross River State. However, the Forestry Commission has been poor in discharging its statutory functions. It is recommended that there should be an urgent need for the State Forestry Commission in Cross River State to formulate forest policy and programmes that would involve CIDM by all stakeholders; TCB; FE; and SL for a more participatory CF. © 2016 Taylor & Francis and Arboricultural Association.

Owombo P.T.,Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria | Idumah F.O.,Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria
Agroforestry Systems | Year: 2016

In addressing the problem of land degradation as well as enhancing sustainable food production, agroforestry was advocated among the arable crop farmers in the area. The study was thus conducted to investigate the determinants as well as the constraints of agroforestry technology adoption in Ondo State, Nigeria. Data collected from a multi-stage sampling procedure were analysed with the aid of descriptive statistics and double hurdle model. Findings revealed that the mean age, farming experience, level of education, and plot age were 58.6 ± 13.3, 31.9 ± 13.8, 7 ± 6.3, and 30.3 ± 10.5, respectively. While the number of adult male and extension contact increased the intensity of agroforestry adoption, value of livestock reduced the technology adoption. This implies that varying factors affect farmers’ decision to adopt and intensity of use. The major constraint of agroforestry practice in the area is insecure land tenure. Policy thrust that would enhance farmers’ access to extension service and redistribute land should be put in place. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

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