Forestry Institute

São Paulo, Brazil

Forestry Institute

São Paulo, Brazil
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Touchan R.,University of Arizona | Anchukaitis K.J.,Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution | Shishov V.V.,Siberian Federal University | Sivrikaya F.,Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University | And 5 more authors.
Holocene | Year: 2014

The first large-scale network of 79 tree-ring chronologies in the Eastern Mediterranean and Near East (EMNE; 33°N-42°N, 21°E-43°E) is described and analyzed to identify the seasonal climatic signal in indices of annual ring width. Correlation analysis and cluster analysis are applied to tree-ring data and gridded climate data to assess the climate signal embedded in the network in preparation for climate field reconstructions and formal proxy/model intercomparison experiments. The lengths of the 79 combined chronologies range from 89 to 990 years. The monthly correlations and partial correlations reveal a pervasive positive association with May, June, and sometimes July precipitation, positive correlations with winter and spring (December through April) temperatures, and negative relationships with May through July temperature, although as expected, there are site-to-site exceptions to these general patterns. Cluster analysis suggests three groups of sites based on their association with climate. The chronologies for the EMNE have coherent seasonal precipitation and temperature signals across a fairly broad geographical domain. The predominant signal is a positive growth response to May-June precipitation. Collectively, the findings suggest that the network can be exploited to develop season-specific field reconstructions of precipitation and drought history in the EMNE. © The Author(s) 2014.

Stankovic D.,University of Belgrade | Krstic B.,University of Novi Sad | Igic R.,University of Novi Sad | Trivan G.,Secretariate for Environmental Protection | And 2 more authors.
Fresenius Environmental Bulletin | Year: 2011

Fruska gora is a mountain situated in the northern part of the Republic of Serbia in the province of Vojvodina. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which soil and plants are burdened with certain heavy metals (Pb, Ni, Zn, Fe, Mn, and others usually present in polluted atmosphere), then the accumulation of heavy metals in the National Park "Fruska gora" was detected and the interdependence of pollution among all three media of the environment determined. This paper analyzes the heavy metal contents within a 2-years period in air, soil and plants at the beginning of the vegetation period. The presence of Pb, Ni, Zn, Fe and Mn in the samples was analyzed using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Measurements of heavy metal contents were performed at 7 locations in soil and vegetative parts of 17 plant types (woody plants, herbs and lianas), and analysis of the air was performed at 2 locations (through placement of sedimentators) within a 3-months period during winter. One of the major findings is that the dominant emission of pollutants at the analyzed locations is anthropogenic and originates from traffic. © by psp.

Souza F.M.,Forestry Institute | Gandolfi S.,University of Sao Paulo | Rodrigues R.R.,University of Sao Paulo
Biotropica | Year: 2014

We investigated how deciduousness of overstory tree species influences the community structure and species composition in the understory. The results suggest that deciduous overstory trees have positive effects on light-demanding species, and that the processes underlying such effects may involve reduced competition for light or facilitation through increased water availability. © 2014 The Association for Tropical Biology and Conservation.

Souza F.M.,Forestry Institute | Gandolfi S.,University of Sao Paulo | Rodrigues R.R.,University of Sao Paulo
Acta Botanica Brasilica | Year: 2015

We investigated the occurrence of associations between overstory and understory tree species in a semideciduous tropical forest. We identified and measured all trees of nine canopy species with diameter at breast height ≥4.8 cm in a 10.24 ha plot and recorded all individuals beneath their canopies (“understory individuals”) within the same diameter class. The total density of understory individuals did not significantly differ under different overstory species. One overstory species (Ceiba speciosa) showed higher understory species richness compared with five other species. There was a strong positive association between three overstory species (Esenbeckia leiocarpa, Savia dictyocarpa, and C. speciosa) and the density of seven understory species (Balfourodendron riedelianum, Chrysophyllum gonocarpum, E. leiocarpa, Holocalyx balansae, Machaerium stipitatum, Rhaminidium elaeocarpum, and S. dictyocarpa). These results probably reflect the outcome of a complex set of interactions including facilitation and competition, and further studies are necessary to better understand the magnitude and type of the effects of individual overstory species on understory species. The occurrence of species-specific associations shown here reinforces the importance of non- -random processes in structuring plant communities and suggest that the influence of overstory species on understory species in high-diversity forests may be more significant than previously thought. © 2015, Sociedade Botanica do Brasil. All rights reserved.

Lima I.A.,Mogi Das Cruzes University | Bissaco M.A.S.,Mogi Das Cruzes University | Lima L.M.P.R.,Forestry Institute | Domingues A.M.,Nove de Julho University
IFMBE Proceedings | Year: 2015

Learning disorders are common in all social strata, but they are more severe in children without adequate care. This study aimed to develop a virtual environment to help the educator to stimulate children in early elementary grades in order to minimize the written expression disorder. This virtual environment is composed by ludic learning objects that address dysgraphia, considering the following aspects: floating lines, descendants and/or ascendants lines, irregular space between words, retouched letters, curvatures and angles of the arches. According to experts in Psychology, Pedagogy and Phonoaudiology, the virtual environment developed is attractive and can help children in acquiring language skills as well as can arouse curiosity, motivation, initiative and self-confidence, promoting interest in learning. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

Melo A.C.G.,Forestry Institute | Durigan G.,Forestry Institute
Unasylva | Year: 2010

A study was conducted to examine the impact and regeneration at forest edges following fire in the seasonal semideciduous forest. The studied area is in the northern part of the Ecological Station of Caetetus in the state of Sa~o Paulo, Brazil. The fire caused damage of major consequence to the structure and floristic composition of the forest. Both internal and considerably from the unburned forest in tree density and biomass. Overall, 24 months after the fire, the biomass measurement of the burned forest had not reached that of the unburned forest, and the recovery of biomass was slower in the external strip. Grasses and lianas from the seed bank or sprouting from suckers quickly recovered in the burned area in the first six months after the fire. The response of plants to fire, even within the same population, depends on the intensity of fire in each location and the morphological characteristics and location of each individual.

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