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Lin G.-W.,National Taiwan University | Chen H.,National Taiwan University | Petley D.N.,Durham University | Horng M.-J.,National Taiwan University | And 2 more authors.
Engineering Geology | Year: 2011

Typhoon-triggered landslides deliver huge amounts of sediment to the upstream channel of the Shihmen Reservoir in northern Taiwan. Observation data regarding landsliding, sediment discharge and water turbidity following five major typhoon events from 1985 to 2006 demonstrated that each time water turbidity in the reservoir area rapidly increased up to ten-fold from the river catchment drainage, and the weight of landslide debris exceeded total sediment discharge five-fold. The fact that huge amounts of landslide debris still remained on upstream slopes and water turbidity suddenly increased in the reservoir area but not in upstream channel implied that the increasing water turbidity in the Shihmen Reservoir was indirectly related to the large landslides occurring in the upstream catchment. The main cause of high turbidity in the reservoir area was that, during a typhoon event, high water discharge flowing into the reservoir scoured the fine fraction sediment at the bottom of the reservoir and formed hyperpycanl flow with high turbidity, which then ascended to contaminate the reservoir surface water. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Yu P.-H.,National Taiwan University | Weng C.-C.,Forestry Bureau | Kuo H.-C.,National Chiayi University | Chi C.-H.,National Taiwan University
American Journal of Primatology | Year: 2015

We evaluated the safety and postsurgical outcomes of endoscopic salpingectomy for sterilization of female Formosan macaques (Macaca cyclopis) as a method of population control. Nineteen adult female Formosan macaques were included in our study. The fallopian tubes of each anesthetized macaque were cauterized and excised endoscopically using a 2.7-mm rigid endoscope system. We recorded the complications encountered, and objectively scored the amount of hemorrhage throughout the procedure. Postoperative ovarian function was evaluated by monitoring the serum levels of sex hormones in ten of the macaques for two ovarian cycles following the salpingectomy. Two to 13 months later, eight of the 19 macaques underwent laparoscopy for the objective evaluation of inflammation at the surgical sites on the fallopian tubes. No major anesthetic- or surgical-associated complications were observed in any of the macaques. The hormonal evaluation showed cyclic ovarian function after salpingectomy in all of the ten macaques examined, and the parameters were comparable to those of other macaque species. The long-term postoperative level of inflammation at the surgical site was minimal to low, and was lower than that reported for other tubal occlusion techniques used in macaques. The use of a 2.7-mm rigid endoscope for salpingectomy in macaques is safe and efficient, with fewer postoperative complications than comparable sterilization techniques. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


PubMed | Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Taiwan Centers for Disease Control, Endemic Species Research Institute, Council of Agriculture and 5 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zoonoses and public health | Year: 2016

Taiwan had been considered rabies free since 1961. In 2013, Taiwan confirmed the detection of rabies virus in wild Taiwan ferret-badgers. Up to December 2014, there have been 423 rabies-confirmed ferret-badgers and three cases of spillover infection into non-reservoir hosts. Genetic analysis indicates that TFBV is distinct from all other known rabies virus variants. To date, ferret-badger rabies is known to occur only in China and Taiwan. The temporal dynamics of rabid ferret-badgers in Taiwan suggests that the epizootic appears to have subsided to enzootic levels as of December 2014. According to the current epidemiologic data, there is only one TFBV strain in Taiwan. TFBV is still sequestered to the mountainous regions. Humans are at risk mainly through exposure to the virus from infected domestic meso-carnivores, mainly dogs and cats. Dogs and cats should be vaccinated to establish an immunological barrier to stop the spread of the disease from mountainous regions to domestic meso-carnivores.


Hsieh H.-M.,Central University of Costa Rica | Lee J.C.-I.,Institute of Forensic Medicine | Lee J.C.-I.,National Taiwan University | Wu J.-H.,ChangHua County Police Bureau | And 7 more authors.
Forensic Science International: Genetics | Year: 2011

Pangolin scales are encountered in traditional East Asian medicines (TEAM) and the ever increasing demand for these scales has escalated the decline in the numbers of these mammals. The identification of protected pangolin species is necessary to enforce international and national legislation as well as assist with conservation measures. There is limited morphological feature on a pangolin scale thus requiring DNA analysis as a means of identification. We report on the isolation of DNA from pangolin scales and a strategy for obtaining the full length of the mitochondrial D-loop, being 1159 bp. Primer sets creating five overlapping amplicons were designed to amplify sections of this mitochondrial DNA locus. DNA from the blood stain of nineteen Formosan pangolins (Manis pentadactyla pentadactyla) along with 145 scale samples that were suspected to have come from pangolins, was amplified and sequenced; leading to a total of 91 D-loop sequences being obtained. The 19 Formosan pangolin sequences produced 5 haplotypes and 72 of the 145 seized scales provided useable sequence classified as a further 38 haplotypes. The D-loop sequences from those scales suspected to be from a pangolin had a higher similarity to any of the 19 samples taken from M. p. pentadactyla compared to a D-loop sequence from Manis tetradactyla (the only pangolin D-loop sequence in GenBank, NC-004027). These 43 haplotypes were used to establish a local database for the D-loop sequence of pangolins and add to the data of Manis sp. held on GenBank. The PCR amplification strategy development in this study could be used in forensic DNA identification of scales suspected to be from protected pangolin species. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.


The genus Hemistola Warren, 1893 in Taiwan is reviewed. Seven species are confirmed, with descriptions of three new species provided: H. piceacola sp. nov., H. fui sp. nov. and H. taiwanensis sp. nov. The immature stages and unusual conifer-feeding behavior of H. piceacola on Taiwan spruce (Picea morrisonicola) are reported. The distribution of H. tenuilinea (Alphéraky, 1897) is discussed and this species is omitted from the Taiwanese fauna. © 2013 Magnolia Press.


Chen H.,National Taiwan University | Lin G.-W.,National Taiwan University | Lu M.-H.,National Taiwan University | Shih T.-Y.,National Taiwan University | And 3 more authors.
Geomorphology | Year: 2011

From 1996 through 2007, several heavy typhoons and earthquakes precipitated landslide hazards in southeast Taiwan. In the present study, we analyze the impact of topography, lithology, rainfall and earthquakes on landsliding and sediment transport by quantifying the landslide ratio (ratio of landslide area to catchment area) and the sediment discharge for the Sinwulu and Luye upstream catchments of the Peinan River. The steep topography in these two catchments causes a large proportion of landslide ratios on slopes to exceeding 50°, a condition which accelerates the delivery of landslide debris to the downslope channel. The landslide ratios of 0.84%-2.30% are obviously related to the rock strength and discontinuity density of the terrain, but we find the magnitude of landsliding and sediment discharge to vary with the occurrence of earthquakes. Typhoon-induced rainstorms generate the bulk of sediment discharge in the study catchments, though the landslide debris is transported by the huge amounts of runoff produced by rainstorms. A contributing factor is the recent occurrence of severe earthquakes which weakened the geomaterial, leading in turn to further increases of fluvial sediment during subsequent typhoons. Additionally, the finding that eventual reduction of unit sediment concentration after high magnitude earthquake events reveals that the downslope transport of landslide debris associated with earthquake activity and subsequent typhoon events precipitates a relatively short term, 1-3. year, increase of erosion rates in these two study areas in southeastern Taiwan. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Although the caterpillars are well-known for the stings and magnificent coloration, the systematics of Limacodidae is historically neglected and chaotic due to the difficulty in matching the larval with adult stages as well as the very conservative and convergent adult morphology. One of the biggest taxonomic problems surrounds a collective group from Southeastern Asia, termed the "green limacodid moths", which harbours at least 90 species placed in the genus Parasa Walker, 1859 and 14 "subunits". The P. undulata group was previously composed of 3 species from China and Taiwan, and characterized only by wing pattern. This species group is extensively studied herein with two new species described, i.e. P. viridiflamma sp. n. (Taiwan) and P. minwangi sp. n. (S. China), and discovery of female genitalia of three species, presenting new phylogenetic insights in this potentially paraphyletic genus. In addition, one limacodid larva was found to be feeding exclusively on Picea (Pinaceae) in Taiwan. Its identity, Parasa pygmy Solovyev, 2010 in P. undulata group, is confirmed through matching its COI sequence to the adult. This discovery is also biologically significant because the previous known host breadth of Parasa was of polyphagy on various angiosperm plant families. This case, therefore, represents the first record of conifer-feeding behavior in this family as well as the first of specialized herbivory in the genus. Meanwhile, the background match between Picea leaves and larval coloration is shared with other Picea-feeding insects. This phenomenon is worth of further investigation in the aspect of convergent evolution of crypsis associated with a particular plant. © Shipher Wu, Weichun Chang.


The genus Hemistola Warren, 1893 in Taiwan is reviewed. Seven species are confirmed, with descriptions of three new species provided: H. piceacola sp. nov., H. fui sp. nov. and H. taiwanensis sp. nov. The immature stages and unusual conifer-feeding behavior of H. piceacola on Taiwan spruce (Picea morrisonicola) are reported. The distribution of H. tenuilinea (Alphraky, 1897) is discussed and this species is omitted from the Taiwanese fauna.


Ho C.-S.,National Pingtung University of Science and Technology | Shih H.-C.,Meiho University | Liu H.-Y.,National Sun Yat - sen University | Chiu S.-T.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences | And 7 more authors.
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2014

Background: Keteleeria davidiana var. formosana (Pinaceae), Taiwan cow-tail fir, is an endangered species listed on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and only two populations remain, both on the Taiwan Island. Sixteen polymorphic microsatellite loci were developed in an endangered and endemic gymnosperm species, Keteleeria davidiana var. formosana, and were tested in an additional 6 taxa, K. davidiana var. calcarea, K. davidiana var. chienpeii, K. evelyniana, K. fortunei, K. fortunei var. cyclolepis, and K. pubescens, to evaluate the genetic variation available for conservation management and to reconstruct the phylogeographic patterns of this ancient lineage. Findings. Polymorphic primer sets were developed from K. davidiana var. formosana using the modified AFLP and magnetic bead enrichment method. The number of alleles ranged from 3 to 16, with the observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.28 to 1.00. All of the loci were found to be interspecifically amplifiable. Conclusions: These polymorphic and transferable loci will be potentially useful for future studies that will focus on identifying distinct evolutionary units within species and establishing the phylogeographic patterns and the process of speciation among closely related species. © 2014 Ho et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Li T.,Central South University of forestry and Technology | Peng X.,Forestry Bureau
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2012

This paper used the germination rate of Phoebe zhennan seeds in field to present the vigor, the content of MDA, the integrality of cell membrane system, the rate of superoxide anion generation and the content of H2O2 were evaluated. The results showed that the content of MDA, the relative electrolyte leakage, the rate of superoxide anion generation and the content of H2O2 of Phoebe zhennan seeds increased with the aged time increase, which indicated that the increase of the lipid peroxidation, lose of the integrality of cell membrane system, the rate of superoxide anion generation and the content of H2O2 induced the vigor dropping and the quality becoming poor for Phoebe zhennan seeds. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

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