Forestry and Fisheries Technology Support Center

Tokushima-shi, Japan

Forestry and Fisheries Technology Support Center

Tokushima-shi, Japan
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Nakanishi T.,Forestry and Fisheries Technology Support Center | Kaneda T.,Forestry and Fisheries Technology Support Center | Nakamuta K.,Chiba University
Applied Entomology and Zoology | Year: 2017

The effects of temperature on larval development and the timing of pupation in the carpenter moth, Cossus insularis (Staudinger) (Lepidoptera: Cossidae) were examined by artificial rearing under different temperatures and the same photoperiod (15L:9D). Although C. insularis pupated and emerged at 20, 25, and 30 °C, the pupation rate was lower at 20 °C than at 25 and 30 °C. These results suggest that the optimum temperature range for preadult development is 25–30 °C. The duration of larval development was about 260 days for the first pupation group at 25 and 30 °C, and at least 600 days at 20 °C. Therefore, the C. insularis generation time was 2 years or more, as the total effective temperature for development from hatching to the pupal stage was unlikely to be reached within 1 year in Tokushima Prefecture. The second group pupated at 25 °C, about 200 days after the first group. This periodicity of pupation was likely due to the free-running period of the circannual rhythm. Furthermore, although only the first group pupated at 30 °C, the peak was almost synchronous with the first group at 25 °C. These results indicate that the timing of the first pupation group in C. insularis is temperature compensated. Therefore we propose that the presence of an endogenous rhythm during the development of C. insularis is evidence for a circannual rhythm related to the timing of pupation. © 2016, The Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology.


Kondo H.,Okayama University | Hirota K.,Forestry and Fisheries Technology Support Center | Maruyama K.,Okayama University | Andika I.B.,Okayama University | Suzuki N.,Okayama University
Virology | Year: 2017

Orchid fleck virus (OFV) represents a rhabdovirus with a unique bipartite genome. OFV genetic diversity at the whole genome level has not been described. Using the partial genome sequence of RNA1, we have determined that several OFV isolates derived from orchids in Japan belong to two genetically distant subgroups: subgroup I, the members of which are distributed worldwide but previously not known in Asia, and subgroup II, which is commonly distributed in Japan. However, complete genome sequence analysis of a novel Japanese subgroup I isolate revealed that although its RNA1 sequence differs considerably from those of subgroup II isolates, its RNA2 sequence is almost identical to them. Based on phylogenetic and recombination analyses, the genome reassortment events were predicted to occur between OFV subgroups including other unseen strains. Our data show that genome reassortment contributes to the genetic diversities of the bipartite rhabdoviruses and its occurrence may be geographically constrained. © 2017 Elsevier Inc.


Sugano S.S.,Tokushima University | Suzuki H.,Tokushima University | Shimokita E.,Tokushima University | Shimokita E.,Forestry and Fisheries Technology Support Center | And 4 more authors.
Scientific Reports | Year: 2017

Mushroom-forming basidiomycetes produce a wide range of metabolites and have great value not only as food but also as an important global natural resource. Here, we demonstrate CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing in the model species Coprinopsis cinerea. Using a high-throughput reporter assay with cryopreserved protoplasts, we identified a novel promoter, CcDED1 pro, with seven times stronger activity in this assay than the conventional promoter GPD2. To develop highly efficient genome editing using CRISPR/Cas9 in C. cinerea, we used the CcDED1 pro to express Cas9 and a U6-snRNA promoter from C. cinerea to express gRNA. Finally, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated GFP mutagenesis was performed in a stable GFP expression line. Individual genome-edited lines were isolated, and loss of GFP function was detected in hyphae and fruiting body primordia. This novel method of high-throughput CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing using cryopreserved protoplasts should be a powerful tool in the study of edible mushrooms. © 2017 The Author(s).


Shimoda T.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Matsuo K.,Forestry and Fisheries Technology Support Center | Matsuo K.,Kyushu University | Yara K.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Hinomoto N.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization
Applied Entomology and Zoology | Year: 2016

Although insect predators [Feltiella acarisuga (Vallot), Scolothrips takahashii Priesner, Oligota spp. and Stethorus spp.] play a role in controlling spider mites, it is difficult to collect insect predators directly under field conditions. To prove the suitability of a plant trap for collecting the predators, we investigated the efficiency of potted komatsuna (Brassica rapa L.) and kidney-bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants inhabited by Tetranychus urticae Koch, using as novel and conventional plant traps respectively, for collecting living insect predators. Large numbers of predators were found on these traps placed in a kudzu vine community [Pueraria montana var. lobata (Willd.) Sanjappa and Pradeep] despite being observed in low densities under the naked eye in the weed community. Significantly higher survival rates (99.5–100 %) were obtained when collecting them from komatsuna traps than those (26.6–61.1 %) obtained with kidney-bean traps due to predators’ entrapment by the hooked trichomes on bean leaves. These results indicate that the komatsuna trap is suitable for collecting living insect predators, even when predators are rarely or not observed directly under the naked eye. We also showed that the komatsuna trap is effective for collecting a parasitoid (Aphanogmus sp.) of F. acarisuga. © 2016, The Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology.


Inoue H.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Nakanishi T.,Forestry and Fisheries Technology Support Center | Kaneda T.,Forestry and Fisheries Technology Support Center
Applied Entomology and Zoology | Year: 2014

A new psyllid species, Cacopsylla biwa Inoue, sp. nov., is described from Tokushima Prefecture, Shikoku, Japan. This new species develops only on Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl. (Rosaceae), causing severe damage to its fruits and flowers. It is strongly suspected that C. biwa is an alien species. Morphological similarities and host-plant relationships indicate that C. biwa is most closely related to Cacopsylla eriobotryae (Yang) comb. nov. (transferred from Edentatipsylla Li), which occurs in Taiwan and feeds on Eriobotrya deflexa (Hemsl.) Nakai. Morphological diagnostic characteristics of C. biwa and differences from the other congeners are discussed. Information is provided on the biology and life cycle of the new species. © 2013 The Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology.


Cao Y.,National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science | Cai Y.,National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science | Hirakubo T.,Iwate Morioka Regional Development Bureau | Fukui H.,Forestry and Fisheries Technology Support Center | Matsuyama H.,National Institute of Livestock and Grassland Science
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2011

Total mixed ration (TMR) silage in different seasons was prepared with apple refuse, orchardgrass hay, orchardgrass silage, corn silage and a commercial compound feed in Tohoku, Japan, and with tofu cake, brewers' grains, tall fescue hay, Sudangrass hay, timothy hay, alfalfa hay and a commercial compound feed in Shikoku, Japan, respectively, and their fermentation quality and microorganism composition were evaluated. In Tohoku, the TMR silage in spring, autumn and winter displayed poor quality, with pH value above 4.7, and the harmful microorganisms such as escherichia, yeasts and molds were detected even after 60days of ensiling; but the TMR silage in summer was well preserved and the escherichia were too few to count after 7days of ensiling. In Shikoku, the TMR silage in all seasons was well preserved, with low pH, high lactic acid contents, and escherichia, yeasts and molds were consistently at or below the detectable numbers after 7days of ensiling. The results showed that the TMR silage could not produce sufficient lactic acid to improve silage quality under low-temperature conditions. Therefore, it is necessary to develop preparation techniques of promoting the lactic acid fermentation for TMR silage in cold seasons. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science.


Bao W.X.,Okayama University | Narai Y.,Shimane Agricultural Technology Center | Nakano A.,Forestry and Fisheries Technology Support Center | Kaneda T.,Forestry and Fisheries Technology Support Center | And 2 more authors.
Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology | Year: 2014

To examine the resistance mechanisms of Thrips palmi against spinosad, we cloned partial nucleotide sequences of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor α6 subunit (TPα6) gene from susceptible (OK) and resistant (TS1 and TS5) strains and compared the deduced amino acid sequences among the three strains. The OK, TS1, and TS5 strains respectively showed LC50 values of 3.4mg/L, 2838.5mg/L, and 6655.5mg/L. The deduced amino acid sequence of TPα6 gene showed 96% identity with that of Frankliniella occidentalis. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of TPα6 gene among the three strains showed that the TS1 and TS5 strains had a resistant amino acid, Glu, at amino acid position 275. On the other hand, a susceptible amino acid, Gly, was encoded at the corresponding amino acid position for the OK strain. The synergist, piperonyl butoxide, respectively caused 1.1-fold, 5.8-fold, and 9.0-fold decreases in the resistance ratios of the OK, TS1, and TS5 strains. These results suggest that spinosad resistance of T. palmi is conferred by reduced sensitivity of TPα6 and cytochrome P450-mediated detoxification. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Forestry and Fisheries Technology Support Center, Utsunomiya University, Shimane Agricultural Technology Center and Okayama University
Type: | Journal: Pesticide biochemistry and physiology | Year: 2014

To examine the resistance mechanisms of Thrips palmi against spinosad, we cloned partial nucleotide sequences of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor 6 subunit (TP6) gene from susceptible (OK) and resistant (TS1 and TS5) strains and compared the deduced amino acid sequences among the three strains. The OK, TS1, and TS5 strains respectively showed LC50 values of 3.4mg/L, 2838.5mg/L, and 6655.5mg/L. The deduced amino acid sequence of TP6 gene showed 96% identity with that of Frankliniella occidentalis. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of TP6 gene among the three strains showed that the TS1 and TS5 strains had a resistant amino acid, Glu, at amino acid position 275. On the other hand, a susceptible amino acid, Gly, was encoded at the corresponding amino acid position for the OK strain. The synergist, piperonyl butoxide, respectively caused 1.1-fold , 5.8-fold , and 9.0-fold decreases in the resistance ratios of the OK, TS1, and TS5 strains. These results suggest that spinosad resistance of T. palmi is conferred by reduced sensitivity of TP6 and cytochrome P450-mediated detoxification.


Ikemoto N.,Tokushima University | Terada K.,Tokushima University | Takashina Y.,Tokushima University | Nakano A.,Forestry and Fisheries Technology Support Center
IEEJ Transactions on Electronics, Information and Systems | Year: 2016

In this paper, we propose a method of surveillance of the plant growth using image processing. This method is able to observe the condition of raising the plant in the greenhouse by detecting small insects. Experts can classify small insects, but many general people cannot classify small insects. Therefore we propose a method of classifying small insects by using image processing. The plate is prepared for extracting small insect. The image is obtained by an image scanner. In first process, each region of small insects is extracted from the image scanner image by using color information. In next process, some features are detected from the region of small insects. In last process, small insects are classified using above features. The experiments using the experimental system are performed to demonstrate the efficacy of this method and the experimental results are shown. © 2016 The Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan.


Nakanishi T.,Forestry and Fisheries Technology Support Center | Kaneda T.,Forestry and Fisheries Technology Support Center | Tokunaga T.,Forestry and Fisheries Technology Support Center
Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology | Year: 2015

The larvae of the carpenter moth, Cossus insularis (Staudinger), bore deeply into branches and trunks after hatching under the bark of Japanese pear trees. For estimation of the optimum timing for pest control against the hatching period, the effect of temperature on hatching and developmental time of eggs was examined by rearing experiments at constant temperatures. Eggs were incubated at the following temperatures: 15, 20, 23, 25, 28, 30 and 35°C. Hatching was observed from 20-30°C. Hatching rates at 25, 28 and 30°C were higher than those at 20 and 23°C. Duration of egg stage decreased with increasing temperature. Since the developmental zero and effective cumulative temperature for duration of egg stage were 16.2°C and 169 degree-days, respectively, the duration of egg stage was estimated at 13-17 days in a field in Tokushima Prefecture, Japan. Subsequently, the optimal timing for chemical control against hatching period was estimated to range from mid-July to mid-August. However, the observed dates of the optimal timing in the field were late-July to late-August. The difference between the estimated and observed dates of the optimal timing was corrected approximately, taking into consideration that the duration of the 1st instar larval stage was 6-14 days.

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