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Hattori T.,Tokushima University | Tsuzuki H.,Tokushima University | Amou H.,Tokushima University | Yokoigawa K.,Tokushima University | And 2 more authors.
Mycoscience | Year: 2016

A biosynthetic pathway for (E)-methyl cinnamate formation was evaluated in Tricholoma matsutake by tracer experiments using 13C- and 2H-labeled precursors. One hundred percent selective 13C incorporation was observed when l-[1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9-13C9, 15N]phenylalanine was converted to (E)-[1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9-13C9]cinnamate and (E)-[1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9-13C9]methyl cinnamate. Similarly, 100% selective 13C incorporation was observed when (E)-[1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9-13C9]cinnamate was converted to (E)-[1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9-13C9]methyl cinnamate. In contrast, the 2H incorporation selectivities were 82.1% and 81.4% when l-[2,3,4,5,6,7,7,8-2H8]phenylalanine was converted to (E)-[2,3,4,5,6,7,8-2H7]cinnamate and (E)-[2,3,4,5,6,7,8-2H7]methyl cinnamate, respectively. Thus, T. matsutake synthesizes (E)-methyl cinnamate from l-phenylalanine via (E)-cinnamate. (E)-cinnamate was likely formed through two pathways: one was major and the other was a minor. © 2016 The Mycological Society of Japan. Source


Shimoda T.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Matsuo K.,Forestry and Fisheries Technology Support Center | Matsuo K.,Kyushu University | Yara K.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Hinomoto N.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization
Applied Entomology and Zoology | Year: 2016

Although insect predators [Feltiella acarisuga (Vallot), Scolothrips takahashii Priesner, Oligota spp. and Stethorus spp.] play a role in controlling spider mites, it is difficult to collect insect predators directly under field conditions. To prove the suitability of a plant trap for collecting the predators, we investigated the efficiency of potted komatsuna (Brassica rapa L.) and kidney-bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants inhabited by Tetranychus urticae Koch, using as novel and conventional plant traps respectively, for collecting living insect predators. Large numbers of predators were found on these traps placed in a kudzu vine community [Pueraria montana var. lobata (Willd.) Sanjappa and Pradeep] despite being observed in low densities under the naked eye in the weed community. Significantly higher survival rates (99.5–100 %) were obtained when collecting them from komatsuna traps than those (26.6–61.1 %) obtained with kidney-bean traps due to predators’ entrapment by the hooked trichomes on bean leaves. These results indicate that the komatsuna trap is suitable for collecting living insect predators, even when predators are rarely or not observed directly under the naked eye. We also showed that the komatsuna trap is effective for collecting a parasitoid (Aphanogmus sp.) of F. acarisuga. © 2016, The Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology. Source


Tomano S.,Hiroshima University | Sanchez G.,Hiroshima University | Ueno K.,Hiroshima University | Ueta Y.,Forestry and Fisheries Technology Support Center | And 2 more authors.
Fisheries Science | Year: 2015

The level of genetic diversity and population differentiation of oval squid Shiro-ikaSepioteuthis sp. 2 around mainland Japan were examined using highly polymorphic DNA markers. Ten microsatellite loci showed relatively low genetic diversity (average observed heterozygosity HO = 0.68, overall mean number of alleles NA = 10.0) as compared with other squid, which may be explained by a recent history of population expansion. Populations from 12 sites along the coastline of Japan were genetically homogeneous, as measured by FST values (global FST: −0.0006; pairwise FST: from −0.0046 to 0.0083), RST values (global RST: 0.0025; pairwise RST: from −0.0076 to 0.03), a neighbor-joining (NJ) tree based on Cavalli-Sforza and Edwards chord distance, Bayesian clustering or analyses of three geographical groups (Sea of Japan, Seto Inland Sea, and Pacific Ocean; FCT = −0.0005), and should be considered as a single fishery stock. Allele frequencies also showed a high degree of similarity across different years in the samples taken from Hiroshima. Factors influencing this homogeneity include genetic exchange without barriers preventing gene flow, larval dispersal, and active adult migration of Sepioteuthis sp. 2. © 2015, Japanese Society of Fisheries Science. Source


Koizumi N.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Mori A.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Mineta T.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Sawad E.,Forestry and Fisheries Technology Support Center | And 2 more authors.
Jurnal Teknologi | Year: 2016

Exploratory environmental DNA, eDNA analysis was performed to investigate plant- feeding habits of the red-eared turtle using their feces samples. This turtle species non- native to Japan appears to be causing feeding damage to lotus roots in several rural areas as a pest, although the reality is still unproven scientifically. The feces samples were collected from five turtles inhabiting agricultural canals surrounding lotus root paddies in Tokushima Prefecture where feeding damage has arisen. After eDNA extraction from the feces samples and polymerase chain reaction, PCR amplification, electrophoresis and sequencing analysis of the amplified PCR products were carried out to confirm whether chloroplast DNA fragments of seven targeted plant species including the lotus were detected from the eDNA samples. From the results, the DNA fragments of six plant species were detected from all eDNA samples, hence, this eDNA analysis appeared to be successful. It suggested that the number of the detected plant species differed between young and adult turtles. Different habitats of the detected plant species indicated that the turtles migrated between the lotus root paddies and the canals. The lotus DNA fragments were found in all turtles. Therefore, our eDNA analysis helps to more definitely prove the feeding damage of the lotus root by this turtle. © 2016 Penerbit UTM Press. All rights reserved. Source


Tomano S.,Hiroshima University | Sanchez G.,Hiroshima University | Kawai K.,Hiroshima University | Kasaoka N.,Japan Steel Works | And 2 more authors.
Fisheries Science | Year: 2016

The relative contribution of Sepioteuthis sp. 1 and Sepioteuthis sp. 2 to oval squid fishery stocks in western Japan was examined using microsatellite DNA and partial sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I. A total of 1718 Sepioteuthis spp. individuals from 19 populations were identified to determine the proportion of each species in fishery stocks. Samples from Tanegashima and Yakushima Islands in southwestern Japan were also examined to determine depth distributions. DNA was used to refer 233 (17.3 %) individuals to Sepioteuthis sp. 1 and 1421 (82.7 %) individuals to Sepioteuthis sp. 2. Sepioteuthis sp. 1 was found on the Pacific side of mainland Japan, but was predominant in Tanegashima (77.1 %) and Yakushima Islands (100 %), suggesting its distribution was limited by the warmer waters of the Kuroshio Current. In contrast, Sepioteuthis sp. 2 was most commonly found around mainland Japan. Whereas Sepioteuthis sp.1 was caught in 10 to 53 m depth, Sepioteuthis sp. 2 was caught in 2 to 30 m depth. Differences in the spatial and bathymetric distributions of these two species might reflect differences in temperature preference, spawning depth, and migration patterns. Our results would be useful for managing the fishery stocks and spawning grounds of both species. © 2016 Japanese Society of Fisheries Science Source

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