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Morita T.,Forestry and Fisheries Technology Center | Miyamatsu A.,Mie University | Fujii M.,Mie University | Kokubu H.,Mie Prefectural Science Fisheries Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Aquatic Botany

The effects of water temperature and bottom sediment type were studied on seed dormancy and germination of Zostera japonica Ascherson & Graebner in mesocosm. To test whether the germination rate is affected by cold stratification, seeds were divided into two groups: those exposed to cold (7°C) and those left untreated (23-15°C). Additionally, to mimic tidal variation, we used five tidal depth treatments for germination experiments in mesocosm. In mesocosm tanks, there was a wide range of daily fluctuating temperature at datum line +40. cm (17-25°C), D.L. +20. cm (15°C), and D.L. +0 cm (4-7°C) In contrast, the maximum temperature range at D.L. -20. cm and -40. cm was narrow (5-6°C). In the no cold stratification group, the maximum germination rates on sandy, muddy sand, and muddy bottom sediment were 3%, 11%, and 3%, respectively. In the cold stratification group (7°C), the maximum germination rates were 40%, 53%, and 54%, respectively. First germination was observed 36 ± 0 days and 43 ± 6 days after the start of the germination experiment in the cold stratification group and the no cold stratification group, respectively. Bottom sediment type and tidal level did not affect seed germination in the both stratification group. Cold stratification strongly increases germination in all sediment types tested and under varying temperature regimes and at different tidal levels. We also tested whether seed germination is affected by daily fluctuations in temperature (10°C constant, 15°C/10°C, and 20°C/10°C were compared) in an indoor incubator. Forty-two days after being sown, the maximum seedling emergence rates in the three groups were 3 ± 5%, 21 ± 7%, and 42 ± 26%, respectively. At 20°C/10°C, first germination was observed 11 days after the start of incubation, the germination rate rose sharply after 18 day of incubation, and then it leveled off after 32-42 days of incubation. In the no cold stratification group, seed germination was not observed in any of the three treatments. This finding suggests that the breaking of seed dormancy and germination of Z. japonica seeds are determined strongly by cold temperature and daily fluctuations of temperature, respectively. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Minami K.,Hokkaido University | Minami K.,Kyoto University | Yasuma H.,Forestry and Fisheries Technology Center | Tojo N.,Hokkaido University | And 4 more authors.
Fisheries Science

Sustainable management of the kelp forests of the Shiretoko Peninsula, a World Natural Heritage site, is necessary due to kelp's ecological and economic importance. The objectives of this study were to estimate the area of kelp forests and to clarify their spatial characteristics in coastal waters of the Shiretoko Peninsula. Data on the presence/absence and thickness of kelp forests were collected via acoustic observation on transects over about 80 km using an echosounder at 200 kHz. Acoustic data were geostatistically interpolated, and the areas covered by kelp forests were estimated. Differences in kelp distribution between the eastern and western sides of the peninsula were compared. The total area of kelp forest was 3.88 km2 (eastern area: 3.49 km2; western area: 0.39 km2). The range of thickness of the kelp forests was 34-91 cm. Many kelp forests in the eastern area were thick (>78 cm) and distributed continuously, while kelp forests in the western area were sparsely distributed. © 2010 The Japanese Society of Fisheries Science. Source

Matsumura A.,Forestry and Fisheries Technology Center | Nomizu T.,Niigata Agricultural Research Institute | Furutani N.,Forestry and Fisheries Technology Center | Hayashi K.,Forestry and Fisheries Technology Center | And 2 more authors.
Scientia Horticulturae

Ion beam irradiation is attracting attention in floriculture as a means of inducing mutations. We investigated the effect of ion beam irradiation on induction of ray florets color/shape mutants from two strains of chrysanthemum to create new flower cultivars. The ray florets and leaf explants of chrysanthemum cultivars, 'Shiroyamate' and 'H13', respectively, cultured on MS medium were irradiated with 12C5+ ion beam at doses of 1, 2, 4 and 8Gy. The frequency of shoot primordia formation on ray florets explants of 'Shiroyamate' and shoot bud formation on leaf explants of 'H13' was decreased by 8Gy and 4Gy irradiation, respectively. The effective dose of ion beam was less than 4Gy in 'Shiroyamate' and less than 2Gy in 'H13'. After exposure to an effective dose of ion beam, regenerated plants were grown in a green-house and the field. Yellow ray florets mutants from 'Shiroyamate', and various ray florets color mutants (dark-red, light red, pink, pink spray) and a flower shape mutant (double-ray florets) from 'H13' were induced by ion beam irradiation. Furthermore, a white mutant was obtained from a chimeric mutant. These results suggest that the combination of ion beam irradiation and tissue culture would be an effective means of generation mutants at a high efficiency. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Ueyama H.,Kyoto Prefectural Plant Protection Office | Tokumaru S.,Kyoto Prefectural Agricultural Research Institute | Tokumaru S.,Forestry and Fisheries Technology Center
Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology

The seasonal prevalence of the sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Say) (Heteroptera: Tingidae), infesting sycamore trees (Platanus spp). planted along a street was surveyed in Kyoto city, Kyoto Prefecture, from 2007 to 2008. In 2007, C. ciliata adults appeared from early May, and increased in numbers from late July, peaking in late August. Nymphs were found from mid-May to mid-September, and numbers peaked in mid-August. Eggs were found from early May, peaking in early August. In 2008, adults appeared from late April, and increased in number from early July, peaking in mid-August. Nymphs were found from late May, with numbers peaking in late July. Eggs were found from late April, peaking in early July. The population densities of adults and nymphs in 2008 were less than those in 2007. The degree of seasonal damage to Platanus spp. caused by C. ciliata was also surveyed in Kyoto city. In 2007, the degree of damage increased from mid-July, and peaked in mid-September. In 2008, the degree of damage peaked in mid-August. To suppress C. ciliata, light pruning and defoliation of the trees were carried out in early August. As a consequence, the degree of damage decreased after late August. Source

Furutani N.,Forestry and Fisheries Technology Center | Ogawa T.,Forestry and Fisheries Technology Center | Fujii C.,Kyoto Womens University | Kawazoe S.,Kyoto Womens University
Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kogaku Kaishi

High isoflavone containing black soybean 'Kou-Iso-Kuro 65 gou is a new breedof 'Shin-Tanbaguro', and enjoys a good reputation in the market. We prepared boiled beans, tofu, and other processed products of 'Kou-Iso-Kuro 65 gou', and investigated each for isoflavone and anthocyanin contents. Additional investigations on the antioxidant capacity of both raw beans and products were also conducted. The isoflavone content of 'Kou-Iso-Kuro 65 gou' was 532.4 mg/100g-DW, more than twice that of the original 'Shin-Tanbaguro'. The isoflavone content of 'Kou-Iso-Kuro 65 gou processed products was more than twice that of 'Shin-Tanbaguro', a significant increase. Malonyl glycoside was decreased and glycoside was increased by cooking. Isoflavone content and composition varied according to the processing method. For example, in steamed beans, isoflavone loss was suppressed, while in tofu, the aglycone level was promoted. Anthocyanin content was the same or higher than 'Shin-Tanbaguro' both in raw beans and products. In additional investigations of functionality, 'Kou-Iso-Kuro 65 gou' showed a higher H-ORAC score than 'Shin-Tanbaguro' both in raw beans and processed products. Thus, 'Kou-Iso-Kuro 65 gou' possesses higher isoflavone and anthocyanin contents, significant functionality, and is larger in size compared to other black soybeans. Steamed beans and tofu are functional processed products that utilize the advantageous character of this cultivar. © Copyright 2016, Japanese Society for Food Science and Technology. Source

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