Morita T.,Forestry and Fisheries Technology Center |
Miyamatsu A.,Mie University |
Fujii M.,Mie University |
Kokubu H.,Mie Prefectural Science Fisheries Research Institute |
And 3 more authors.
Aquatic Botany | Year: 2011
The effects of water temperature and bottom sediment type were studied on seed dormancy and germination of Zostera japonica Ascherson & Graebner in mesocosm. To test whether the germination rate is affected by cold stratification, seeds were divided into two groups: those exposed to cold (7°C) and those left untreated (23-15°C). Additionally, to mimic tidal variation, we used five tidal depth treatments for germination experiments in mesocosm. In mesocosm tanks, there was a wide range of daily fluctuating temperature at datum line +40. cm (17-25°C), D.L. +20. cm (15°C), and D.L. +0 cm (4-7°C) In contrast, the maximum temperature range at D.L. -20. cm and -40. cm was narrow (5-6°C). In the no cold stratification group, the maximum germination rates on sandy, muddy sand, and muddy bottom sediment were 3%, 11%, and 3%, respectively. In the cold stratification group (7°C), the maximum germination rates were 40%, 53%, and 54%, respectively. First germination was observed 36 ± 0 days and 43 ± 6 days after the start of the germination experiment in the cold stratification group and the no cold stratification group, respectively. Bottom sediment type and tidal level did not affect seed germination in the both stratification group. Cold stratification strongly increases germination in all sediment types tested and under varying temperature regimes and at different tidal levels. We also tested whether seed germination is affected by daily fluctuations in temperature (10°C constant, 15°C/10°C, and 20°C/10°C were compared) in an indoor incubator. Forty-two days after being sown, the maximum seedling emergence rates in the three groups were 3 ± 5%, 21 ± 7%, and 42 ± 26%, respectively. At 20°C/10°C, first germination was observed 11 days after the start of incubation, the germination rate rose sharply after 18 day of incubation, and then it leveled off after 32-42 days of incubation. In the no cold stratification group, seed germination was not observed in any of the three treatments. This finding suggests that the breaking of seed dormancy and germination of Z. japonica seeds are determined strongly by cold temperature and daily fluctuations of temperature, respectively. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Nakamura S.,Miyagi Prefectural Institute of Agriculture and Horticulture |
Masuda T.,Miyagi Prefectural Institute of Agriculture and Horticulture |
Mochizuki A.,Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences |
Konishi K.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center |
And 3 more authors.
Molecular Ecology Resources | Year: 2013
Leafminer flies, especially, Liriomyza huidobrensis, Liriomyza sativae and Liriomyza trifolii, are quarantine species in many countries. Their morphological similarity makes identification difficult. To develop a rapid, reliable, sensitive and simple molecular identification method using multiplex PCR, we newly sequenced the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (COI) genes of Liriomyza bryoniae, Liriomyza chinensis, L. huidobrensis, L. sativae, L. trifolii, Chromatomyia horticola and four parasitoid species. We aligned them with all the COI sequences of the leafminer flies found in the international DNA nucleotide sequence databases (DDBJ/EMBL/GenBankWe then designed species-specific primers to allow us to differentiate between L. bryoniae, L. chinensis, L. huidobrensis, L. sativae, and L. trifolii. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
PubMed | Shinshu University, Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute, Kyoto University, Forestry and Fisheries Technology Center and Japan National Institute for Agro - Environmental Sciences
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry | Year: 2016
Tricholoma matsutake, a basidiomycete, forms ectomycorrhizas with Pinus densiflora as the host tree. Its fruiting body, matsutake in Japanese, is an edible and highly prized mushroom, and it grows in a circle called a fairy ring. Beneath the fairy ring of T. matsutake, a whitish mycelium-soil aggregated zone, called shiro in Japanese, develops. The front of the shiro, an active mycorrhizal zone, functions to gather nutrients from the soil and roots to nourish the fairy ring. Bacteria and sporulating fungi decrease from the shiro front, whereas they increase inside and outside the shiro front. Ohara demonstrated that the shiro front exhibited antimicrobial activity, but the antimicrobial substance has remained unidentified for 50years. We have identified the antimicrobial substance as the (oxalato)aluminate complex, known as a reaction product of oxalic acid and aluminum phosphate to release soluble phosphorus. The complex protects the shiro from micro-organisms, and contributes to its development.
Matsumura A.,Forestry and Fisheries Technology Center |
Nomizu T.,Niigata Agricultural Research Institute |
Furutani N.,Forestry and Fisheries Technology Center |
Hayashi K.,Forestry and Fisheries Technology Center |
And 2 more authors.
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2010
Ion beam irradiation is attracting attention in floriculture as a means of inducing mutations. We investigated the effect of ion beam irradiation on induction of ray florets color/shape mutants from two strains of chrysanthemum to create new flower cultivars. The ray florets and leaf explants of chrysanthemum cultivars, 'Shiroyamate' and 'H13', respectively, cultured on MS medium were irradiated with 12C5+ ion beam at doses of 1, 2, 4 and 8Gy. The frequency of shoot primordia formation on ray florets explants of 'Shiroyamate' and shoot bud formation on leaf explants of 'H13' was decreased by 8Gy and 4Gy irradiation, respectively. The effective dose of ion beam was less than 4Gy in 'Shiroyamate' and less than 2Gy in 'H13'. After exposure to an effective dose of ion beam, regenerated plants were grown in a green-house and the field. Yellow ray florets mutants from 'Shiroyamate', and various ray florets color mutants (dark-red, light red, pink, pink spray) and a flower shape mutant (double-ray florets) from 'H13' were induced by ion beam irradiation. Furthermore, a white mutant was obtained from a chimeric mutant. These results suggest that the combination of ion beam irradiation and tissue culture would be an effective means of generation mutants at a high efficiency. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
PubMed | Forestry and Fisheries Technology Center, Iwate University, Meijo University, Yamaguchi University and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Scientific reports | Year: 2017
Field experiments were conducted over 3 years (2012, 2013, and 2015), in which half of the young stage soybean plants were exposed to volatiles from cut goldenrods three times over 2-3 weeks, while the other half remained unexposed. There was a significant reduction in the level of the total leaf damage on exposed soybean plants compared with unexposed ones. In 2015, the proportion of damage to plants by Spodoptera litura larvae, a dominant herbivore, was significantly less in the exposed field plots than in the unexposed plots. Under laboratory conditions, cut goldenrod volatiles induced the direct defenses of soybean plants against S. litura larvae and at least three major compounds, -pinene, -myrcene, and limonene, of cut goldenrod volatiles were involved in the induction. The number of undamaged seeds from the exposed plants was significantly higher than that from unexposed ones. Concentrations of isoflavones in the seeds were significantly higher in seeds from the exposed plants than in those from the unexposed plants. Future research evaluating the utility of weeding volatiles, as a form of plant-plant communications, in pest management programs is necessary.
PubMed | Japan National Research Institute of Fisheries And Environment of Inland Sea, Japan National Research Institute of Fisheries Science, Forestry and Fisheries Technology Center and Fisheries Research Institute
Type: | Journal: Journal of fish diseases | Year: 2016
Bacterial haemolytic jaundice caused by Ichthyobacterium seriolicida has been responsible for mortality in farmed yellowtail, Seriola quinqueradiata, in western Japan since the 1980s. In this study, polymorphic analysis of I.seriolicida was performed using three molecular methods: amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA). Twenty-eight isolates were analysed using AFLP, while 31 isolates were examined by MLST and MLVA. No polymorphisms were identified by AFLP analysis using EcoRI and MseI, or by MLST of internal fragments of eight housekeeping genes. However, MLVA revealed variation in repeat numbers of three elements, allowing separation of the isolates into 16 sequence types. The unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages cluster analysis of the MLVA data identified four major clusters, and all isolates belonged to clonal complexes. It is likely that I.seriolicida populations share a common ancestor, which may be a recently introduced strain.
Imanishi Y.,Forestry and Fisheries Technology Center |
Tanaka M.,Forestry and Fisheries Technology Center |
Fujiwara M.,Forestry and Fisheries Technology Center
Fisheries Science | Year: 2013
The complete mitochondrial genome (mt-genome) sequence of Fulvia mutica (Veneroida; Cardiidae) was determined. The genome is 19,110 bp in size and contains 42 genes, including the ATP synthase subunit 8 gene (atp8). All genes are on the same strand, as in other marine bivalves. It is extremely different in gene arrangement and size from that of Acanthocardia tuberculata, the only species belonging to Cardiidae with complete genome sequence data. The presence of putative atp8 genes in two additional reported bivalve species, A. tuberculata and Sinonovacula constricta was also inferred by revising their deposited sequence data. It was suggested that atp8 genes of heterodont bivalves could be translated to 37-39 amino acid sequences highly conserved within families, excluding Hiatella arctica with 53 amino acids. The mt-genome of F. mutica also contains two large duplicated regions related to different sequence motifs. One of the regions consists of five nearly identical copies of the 154 bp motif that includes a transfer RNA gene for cysteine. This region exhibited polymorphism in the number of repeats among individuals, suggesting the existence of a variable number of tandem repeats, which was expected to provide valuable information for developing useful genetic markers for phylogenetic study and population genetics. © 2013 The Japanese Society of Fisheries Science.
PubMed | Kyoto University, Kyoto Prefectural University and Forestry and Fisheries Technology Center
Type: | Journal: SpringerPlus | Year: 2015
Okadome K.,Forestry and Fisheries Technology Center |
Amano H.,Forestry and Fisheries Technology Center
Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology | Year: 2014
The purpose of this study was to determine the wavelengths of reflected light that attract and repel the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood. The authors made 12 kinds of colored sticky board traps using Tyvek® sheets to reflect light and sharp-cut filters as optical filters and tested them in a greenhouse in which tomatoes were cultivated. By analyzing the number of whitefly catches on each sticky trap, we determined that the most attractive wavelengths were from 464 to 587nm, and that wavelengths less than 464nm repelled the insects.
PubMed | Kyoto Biken Laboratories Inc., Osaka Prefecture University and Forestry and Fisheries Technology Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Archives of virology | Year: 2016
We investigated the synergistic effects of co-infection by zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on viral distribution in the vascular tissues of cucumber. Immunohistochemical observations indicated that ZYMV was present in both the phloem and xylem tissues. ZYMV-RNA was detected in both the xylem wash and guttation fluid of ZYMV-inoculated cucumber. Steam treatment at a stem internode indicated that ZYMV enters the xylem vessels and moves through them but does not cause systemic infection in the plant. CMV distribution in singly infected cucumbers was restricted to phloem tissue. By contrast, CMV was detected in the xylem tissue of cotyledons in plants co-infected with CMV and ZYMV. Although both ZYMV-RNA and CMV-RNA were detected in the xylem wash and upper internodes of steam-treated, co-infected cucumbers grown at 24C, neither virus was detected in the upper leaves using an ELISA assay. Genetically modified CMV harboring the ZYMV HC-Pro gene was distributed in the xylem and phloem tissues of singly inoculated cucumber cotyledons. These results indicate that the ZYMV HC-Pro gene facilitates CMV entry into the xylem vessels of co-infected cucumbers.