Forestry and Fisheries Research Center

Toyama-shi, Japan

Forestry and Fisheries Research Center

Toyama-shi, Japan

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Kubojima Y.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute | Sonoda S.,Forestry and Fisheries Research Center | Kato H.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute
WCTE 2016 - World Conference on Timber Engineering | Year: 2016

The effect of the crosser's position used for piled lumber on longitudinal vibration was investigated. As a model case, specimens with and without a concentrated mass were compressed in their thickness direction at nodal and antinodal positions of longitudinal vibration. Longitudinal vibration tests were then conducted. Young's modulus was unaffected by compressing the specimen at the nodal position, but it was affected by compression at the antinodal position. When crossers are placed at the nodal positions, accurate density and Young's modulus values will be determined without the influence of weight of the upper lumber using the vibration method with additional mass.

Sonoda S.,Forestry and Fisheries Research Center | Kubojima Y.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute | Kato H.,Japan Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute
WCTE 2016 - World Conference on Timber Engineering | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to develop a practical, and non-destructive test method to determine Young's modulus for a timber sample without measuring its weight. The longitudinal vibration method with additional mass tests was used. The effects of the weight of the additional mass and the connection method between the mass and specimen were examined to determine the applicability of this method to timber. The method provided good estimation of Young's modulus under suitable conditions.

Matsushita Y.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Shima Y.,Forestry and Fisheries Research Center
Phytoparasitica | Year: 2015

Replication and cellular movement of viroids are dependent on host plant components. Low temperatures reduce the physiological activity of host plants and thus suppress the levels of viroids. Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) concentration was reduced in infected chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) plants subjected to low-temperature treatment compared with untreated plants. In this study, we investigated the distribution patterns of CSVd in the developing shoot tips of CSVd-infected chrysanthemum plants subjected to one-month, three-month, and six-month low-temperature treatment using in situ hybridization. After one month of low-temperature treatment, strong CSVd signals were detected in leaf primordia (LP) and the apical dome (AD); after three months, weak CSVd signals were detected in LP and the AD; while after six months, CSVd signals were not detected in LP or the AD, but only in tissues within the vascular bundle directly beneath viroid-free LP and AD areas. These changes in the distribution of CSVd in shoot tips subjected to low-temperature treatment might result from a reduction in viroid replication and/or the inhibition of viroid intra- and intercellular movement. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Ashizawa T.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center | Takahashi M.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center | Moriwaki J.,Forestry and Fisheries Research Center | Hirayae K.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center
Journal of General Plant Pathology | Year: 2011

False smut, caused by Ustilaginoidea virens, is a serious disease of rice worldwide. To evaluate false smut resistance in rice, we developed a method combining the cultivation of the main culm of rice plants in the greenhouse and rapid preparation of a conidial suspension to inject into the leaf sheath. The method was used to evaluate false smut resistance in 18 varieties/lines of rice. For comparison, field trials were also carried out in 2007 and 2008. The results indicated that the greenhouse method was more reproducible than field trials: commercial varieties tested were resistant; almost all the forage varieties were highly susceptible; and blast-resistant varieties/lines were mostly resistant to false smut. Thus, this inoculation method will be useful for determining the level of false smut resistance in rice and for breeding resistant varieties. © 2010 The Phytopathological Society of Japan and Springer.

Encarnacion A.B.,Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology | Fagutao F.,Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology | Shozen K.-I.,Forestry and Fisheries Research Center | Hirono I.,Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology | Ohshima T.,Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology
Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

We investigated the effects of decreasing phenoloxidase (PO) activity and prophenoloxidase (proPO) gene expression on the inhibition of postharvest melanosis formation in the red queen crab, Chionoecetes japonicus. The cDNA of proPO from hemocytes of C. japonicus was partially cloned and sequenced. Immersion of live crabs in a 1.0% ergothioneine (ESH)-rich mushroom extract (Flammulina velutipes; ME) solution resulted in significant inhibition of haemolymph PO activity and a reduction of the proPO gene expression in hemocytes that consequently controlled melanosis in the crabs during ice storage. Treatments with a 0.05% w/v sodium sulphite solution or a 0.05% w/v 4-hexyl-1,3-benzenediol solution had similar positive effects as the treatment with a 1.0% ME solution in vivo. In vitro experiments showed that authentic l-(+)-ESH inhibited PO activity and decreased proPO gene expression in crab hemocytes. Thus, the application of ESH-rich ME can be a novel alternative to synthetic melanosis-inhibiting agents to control postharvest melanosis in crabs. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Adachi S.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Tsuru Y.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Nito N.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Murata K.,Forestry and Fisheries Research Center | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Experimental Botany | Year: 2011

DNA marker-assisted selection appears to be a promising strategy for improving rates of leaf photosynthesis in rice. The rate of leaf photosynthesis was significantly higher in a high-yielding indica variety, Habataki, than in the most popular Japanese variety, Koshihikari, at the full heading stage as a result of the higher level of leaf nitrogen at the same rate of application of nitrogen and the higher stomatal conductance even when the respective levels of leaf nitrogen were the same. The higher leaf nitrogen content of Habataki was caused by the greater accumulation of nitrogen by plants. The higher stomatal conductance of Habataki was caused by the higher hydraulic conductance. Using progeny populations and selected lines derived from a cross between Koshihikari and Habataki, it was possible to identify the genomic regions responsible for the rate of photosynthesis within a 2.1 Mb region between RM17459 and RM17552 and within a 1.2 Mb region between RM6999 and RM22529 on the long arm of chromosome 4 and on the short arm of chromosome 8, respectively. The designated region on chromosome 4 of Habataki was responsible for both the increase in the nitrogen content of leaves and hydraulic conductance in the plant by increasing the root surface area. The designated region on chromosome 8 of Habataki was responsible for the increase in hydraulic conductance by increasing the root hydraulic conductivity. The results suggest that it may be possible to improve photosynthesis in rice leaves by marker-assisted selection that focuses on these regions of chromosomes 4 and 8. © 2010 The Author(s).

Matsuzuka K.,Tohoku University | Kimura E.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center | Nakagawa K.,Tohoku University | Murata K.,Forestry and Fisheries Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2013

Rice tocotrienol (T3) has gained attention due to its physiological activities (e.g.; antiangiogenesis). However, the biosynthetic pathway for T3 production in rice grain has not been well studied. We hypothesized that T3 biosynthesis enzymes and/or precursors play an important role in T3 production in whole grain. This proposal was evaluated in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by PCR and HPLC techniques. Grain tocopherol as well as flag leaf vitamin E levels were also investigated for comparison. For rice samples 14 days after flowering, grain was abundant in T3, but not in flag leaf. Expression of a gene encoding homogentisate geranylgeranyltransferase (HGGT, which has long been believed to be important for T3 production) differed significantly between grain and flag leaf. We then investigated rice samples during the grain maturation period, and found that grain T3 and HGGT levels increased in the early stage and then reached a plateau. T3 precursors such as homogentisate and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate decreased during maturation. No increase in grain T3 from the middle to late stages of maturation and a decrease in T3 precursors during maturation suggest that HGGT would be an essential, but not limiting factor for T3 biosynthesis, and T3 precursors could regulate the T3 level in grain. The results of this study would be useful for nutraceutical purposes (e.g.; development of T3-overproducing rice for the prevention of angiogenic disorders). © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Obara M.,Iwate Biotechnology Research Center | Obara M.,Japan International Research Center for Agricultural science | Tamura W.,Tohoku University | Ebitani T.,Forestry and Fisheries Research Center | And 3 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2010

Root system development is an important target for improving yield in cereal crops. Active root systems that can take up nutrients more efficiently are essential for enhancing grain yield. In this study, we attempted to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) involved in root system development by measuring root length of rice seedlings grown in hydroponic culture. Reliable growth conditions for estimating the root length were first established to renew nutrient solutions daily and supply NH4 + as a single nitrogen source. Thirty-eight chromosome segment substitution lines derived from a cross between 'Koshihikari', a japonica variety, and 'Kasalath', an indica variety, were used to detect QTL for seminal root length of seedlings grown in 5 or 500 μM NH4 +. Eight chromosomal regions were found to be involved in root elongation. Among them, the most effective QTL was detected on a 'Kasalath' segment of SL-218, which was localized to the long-arm of chromosome 6. The 'Kasalath' allele at this QTL, qRL6. 1, greatly promoted root elongation under all NH4 + concentrations tested. The genetic effect of this QTL was confirmed by analysis of the near-isogenic line (NIL) qRL6. 1. The seminal root length of the NIL was 13.5-21.1% longer than that of 'Koshihikari' under different NH4 + concentrations. Toward our goal of applying qRL6. 1 in a molecular breeding program to enhance rice yield, a candidate genomic region of qRL6. 1 was delimited within a 337 kb region in the 'Nipponbare' genome by means of progeny testing of F2 plants/F3 lines derived from a cross between SL-218 and 'Koshihikari'. © 2010 The Author(s).

Siswanto E.,University of Technology Malaysia | Ishizaka J.,Nagoya University | Tripathy S.C.,Nagoya University | Miyamura K.,Forestry and Fisheries Research Center
Remote Sensing of Environment | Year: 2013

The end of Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) mission makes harmful algal bloom (HAB) detection with moderate resolution satellite data now relies on Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Based on MODIS and in situ data collected in the coastal region of the western part of Seto-Inland Sea, Japan with HAB-forming algae Karenia mikimotoi, a simpler new satellite remote sensing-based HAB detection method was developed. The strength of this method is, although it does not require indigenous atmospheric correction scheme, it is expected to be able to classify K. mikimotoi blooms, diatom blooms, TSM-dominated waters, gelbstoff-dominated waters, and mixed waters in the optically complex coastal waters. We anticipate that our satellite remote sensing-based HAB detection method can operate as a valuable complementary tool assisting in situ HAB monitoring and as an integrated part of HAB early warning systems to mitigate HAB negative impacts not only in the coastal waters of the western part of Seto-Inland Sea, Japan, but also in the other coastal waters with different HAB-forming algae, providing that backscattering signature and pigment packaging of other HAB-forming algae are similar to those of K. mikimotoi. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Okuda M.,National Agriculture Research | Okazaki S.,Forestry and Fisheries Research Center | Yamasaki S.,Forestry and Fisheries Research Center | Okuda S.,National Agriculture Research | Sugiyama M.,National Institute of Vegetable and Tea Science
Phytopathology | Year: 2010

Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus (CCYV) causes chlorotic yellows on cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and melon (Cucumis melo) and is transmitted by Bemisia tabaci biotype B and Q whiteflies. To characterize the host range of CCYV, 21 cucurbitaceous and 12 other plant species were inoculated using whitefly vectors. All tested Cucumisspp. except Cucumis anguria and Cucumis zeyheri were systemically infected with CCYV, although infection rates varied among species. Citrullus lanatus, Cucurbita pepo, and Luffa cylindrica were susceptible to CCYV; however, the infection rates were low and symptoms were unclear. In addition to the cucurbitaceous plants, Beta vulgaris, Chenopodium amaranticolor, Chenopodium quinoa, Spinacia oleracea, Lactuca sativa, Datura stramonium, and Nicotiana benthamiana were also systemically infected by CCYV. Complete RNA1 and RNA2 were reverse-transcribed, cloned, and sequenced. CCYV RNA1 was found to be 8, 607 nucleotides (nt) long and contained four open reading frames (ORFs). The first ORF spanned methyltransferase and RNA helicase domains followed by an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domain, presumably translated by a +1 ribosomal frameshift. CCYV RNA2 was found to be 8, 041 nt long and contained eight ORFs, including the hallmark gene array of the family Closteroviridae. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that CCYV was genetically close to Lettuce chlorosis virus, Bean yellow disorder virus, and Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus. Amino acid sequence similarities of representative proteins with these viruses indicated that CCYV should be classified as a distinct crinivirus species. © 2010 The American Phytopathological Society.

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