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Kathmandu, Nepal

Gurung A.,Kangwon National University | Karki R.,ForestAction | Cho J.S.,Sunchon National University | Park K.W.,Soongsil University | Oh S.-E.,Kangwon National University
Energy Policy | Year: 2013

Nepal is one of the least developed countries, with the lowest per capita energy consumption in the world. Traditional solid biomass plays a significant role in meeting the primary energy demand in the country, which represents about 87% of the total primary energy mix. Till date, only 50% of the population has access to electricity, and disparity between the urban and rural areas in terms of access to energy is prevalent. In order to improve the energy situation in rural areas, the Government of Nepal initiated the promotion and development of renewable energy technologies (RETs) through subsidies. Nepal has the potential to generate energy through renewable sources like mini/microhydro schemes, solar power, biogas and wind. It is estimated that more than 50. MW of electricity can be generated from the micro hydro schemes, 2100. MW from solar and 3000. MW from wind. Moreover, the country has the capacity to develop about 1.1 million domestic biogas plants. RETs may provide ample opportunity to improve the vulnerable rural energy system in Nepal if the available renewable resources are optimally utilized. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Paudel N.S.,ForestAction | Monterroso I.,Rights and Resources Initiative | Monterroso I.,Latin American Faculty of Social Sciences | Cronkleton P.,Center for International Forestry Research
Conservation and Society | Year: 2012

This paper examines the emerging role of secondary level organisations in the democratisation of forest governance by analysing two cases of forest-based collective action in Nepal and Guatemala. It explores the conditions surrounding the emergence and growth of these secondary level organisations, and examines the nature of their organisational approaches, strategic actions, and the resulting outcomes in terms of democratising forest governance. The organisations discussed in this paper are products of broader decentralisation processes and represent organised and empowered forest people. They are capable of shifting the balance of power in favour of community level institutions, and can compel state agencies to become more accountable to the needs of forest-dependent citizens. As a result, by leading collective action beyond the community to a secondary level, these organisations have influenced forest governance by making it more democratic, equitable and productive. Copyright © Paudel et al. 2012. Source


Shrestha S.,Tribhuvan University | Karky B.S.,International Center for Integrated Mountain Development | Gurung A.,Kangwon National University | Bista R.,ForestAction | Vetaas O.R.,University of Bergen
Small-scale Forestry | Year: 2013

This study assessed the net above-ground carbon stock in six community forests in the Dolakha district, Nepal. A survey was conducted of above-ground timber species, using random sampling. A tree-ring chronology for Pinus roxburghii was created to construct a growth model representative of the various mainly-pine species. The allometric model combined with tree ring analysis was used to estimate carbon stock and annual growth in the above-ground tree biomass. The out-take of forest biomass for construction material and fuelwood was estimated on the basis of interviews and official records of community forest user groups. The average annual carbon increment of the community forests was 2.19 ton/ha, and the average annual carbon out-take of timber and fuelwood was 0.25 ton/ha. The net average carbon balance of 1.94 ton/ha was equivalent to 117.44 tons of carbon per community forest annually. All the community forests were actively managed leading to a sustainable forest institution, which acts as a carbon sink. It is concluded that community forests have the potential to reduce emissions by avoiding deforestation and forest degradation, enhance forest carbon sink and improve livelihoods for local communities. © 2012 Steve Harrison, John Herbohn. Source


Gurung A.,Kangwon National University | Bista R.,ForestAction | Karki R.,ForestAction | Shrestha S.,Tribhuvan University | And 2 more authors.
Small-scale Forestry | Year: 2013

The status of forest conditions before and after intervention of the forestry projects in community forest in three districts of Nepal is examined. Benefits are observed from the adoption of adaptive collaborative management and collective learning and action research in three sampled districts. The adoption of regular silvicultural treatments has increased the availability of forest products to local users. Moreover, improved forest condition and smallholder livelihoods have improved, as has environmental sustainability. However, the community forestry program has several limitations and shortcomings. Elite capture, social disparity, inequitable benefit-sharing and exclusion of poor and marginalized groups from the community forestry program are notable challenges to be solved in coming years. Special attention is needed to make community forestry inclusive with equitable benefit-sharing and a pro-poor focus. © 2012 Steve Harrison, John Herbohn. Source


Gurung A.,Kangwon National University | Karki R.,ForestAction | Bista R.,ForestAction | Oh S.-E.,Kangwon National University
Small-scale Forestry | Year: 2012

Universally, trees have been recognized as an important component of urban landscapes for millennia because they provide a wide range of benefits to society. Although the planting of trees has been an integral and important part of human settlements in Nepal, the concept of urban forestry is poorly understood and often neglected. This paper investigates urban peoples' perceptions towards urban forests as well as the perceived benefits related to the use and existence of urban forests in Lalitpur, Nepal. A survey was conducted among residents and visitors to an urban park. Most respondents held positive attitudes towards urban forests and were aware of the benefits provided. Despite involvement of various agents from both government and non-governmental organizations in promoting urban forests, greenery was declining in the city. The loss and degradation of urban forests adversely affected the ecosystems because the city is suffering from water, air and soil pollution. In recent years, the local government has promoted urban greenery; however, there are no accompanying legislation or regulations governing urban forestry. Therefore, concrete scientific and professional knowledge is required in order to manage the forestry in the city. © 2011 Steve Harrison, John Herbohn. Source

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