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Bilgen B.B.,Namik Kemal University | Alan M.,Forest Tree Seeds and Tree Breeding Research Directorate | Kurt Y.,Akdeniz University
Sumarski List | Year: 2013

The Mediterranean Basin is one of the major plant diversity centers in the northern hemisphere. The Eastern Mediterranean Basin is also a hotspot region of gene diversity for conifer species. In this study, Turkeys conifer seed orchards were investigated for their effective number of clones. The mean census number of clones (N) was estimated 33.12. The mean effective number of clones (Nc) was calculated as 27.59. The mean relative effective number of clones (Nr = Nc/N) was 0.827. The estimated proportional gene diversity was found 0.973, with a range from 0.922 to 0.983. Thus, considerable attention should be given to use nearly equal ramet numbers during seed orchard establishment and management operations. Threats such as climatic change, fire, disease and insects should be considered during seed orchards establishment. High number of populations from wide range of species should be sampled and seed orchards should be established locally depending on ecological requirements of species. This is also essential for sustainable management of forest genetic resources. Information both from phenotypic selection and molecular genetic analysis should be used to establish future seed orchards.


Kandemir G.E.,Middle East Technical University | Kandemir G.E.,Forest Tree Seeds and Tree Breeding Research Directorate | Kaya Z.,Middle East Technical University | Temel F.,Middle East Technical University | And 2 more authors.
Silvae Genetica | Year: 2010

Wind-pollinated seeds from 40 trees (half-sib families) were collected from each of six Turkish red pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) populations in southern Turkey. Two-year old seedlings were evaluated for growth, phenology and cold resistance in a common garden experiment established in Ankara, located outside the species' natural range. Each family was represented with a six-tree row plot within each of the three replications. The below freezing temperatures (-15.2°C) observed in January and February of 2000 were sufficient to observe visually-assessable-cold damage to the seedlings. The populations significantly differed in all traits under investigation except for second flushing in 1999. Populations originating from more inland and higher elevation areas were more resistant to cold than coastal low elevation populations. Families within populations were significantly different as regards all traits except HTOO. Family heritability for bud burst was 0.40, and ranged from 0.12 to 0.37 for height, and from 0.20 to 0.23 for bud set. Final height of cold damage prone seedlings was shorter than cold tolerant seedlings. Families with early bud-set, later bud-burst and shorter second flush shoots suffered less from cold damage. Considering the expected climate change in the eastern Mediterranean, there is a potential for using this species outside its natural range, especially in sites experiencing more continental climate since it will be possible to move the species 200-300 m in altitude and 2-3 degrees in latitude.


Ozler H.,Forest Tree Seeds and Tree Breeding Research Directorate | Pehlivan S.,Forest Tree Seeds and Tree Breeding Research Directorate | Pehlivan S.,Gazi University
Bangladesh Journal of Botany | Year: 2010

Pollen grains of 16 taxa of ALLIUM L. belonging to sections RHIZIRIDEUM G. Don ex Koch., CODONOPRASUM Reichb. and ALLIUM L. were investigated using light and scanning electron microscope, and pollens of four taxa were also examined with transmission electron microscope. Pollens were monosulcate and ellipsoidal. It was observed that the sulcus extends from distal to proximal in all taxa. The exine was semitectate and the tectum was perforate. Columellae were simplicolumellate. Exine sculpture was striate- perforate, striate-rugulate- perforate and rugulate-perforate. A. ALBIDUM Fischer ex Bieb. subsp. CAUCASICUM (Regel) Steam, A. RUPICOLA Boiss ex Mouterde and A. ASPERIFLORUM Miscz. were seen to have an operculum.


Ozdilek A.,Middle East Technical University | Cengel B.,Forest Tree Seeds and Tree Breeding Research Directorate | Kandemir G.,Forest Tree Seeds and Tree Breeding Research Directorate | Tayanc Y.,Forest Tree Seeds and Tree Breeding Research Directorate | And 2 more authors.
Plant Systematics and Evolution | Year: 2012

The genetic diversity and evolutionary divergence in Liquidambar species and Liquidambar orientalis varieties were compared with respect to the matK gene. A total of 66 genotypes from 18 different populations were sampled in southwestern Turkey. The matK region, which is about 1,512 bp in length, was sequenced and studied. L. orientalis, L. styraciflua, and L. formosana had similar magnitude of nucleotide diversity, while L. styraciflua and L. acalycina possessed higher evolutionary divergence. The highest evolutionary divergence was found between L. styraciflua and eastern Asian Liquidambar species (0. 0102). However, the evolutionary divergence between L. orientalis and other species was of a similar magnitude. The maximum-parsimony phylogenetic tree showed that L. styraciflua and L.orientalis formed a closer clade while East Asian species were in a separate clade. This suggests that the North Atlantic Land Bridge through southern Greenland may have facilitated continuous distribution of Liquidambar species from southeastern Europe to eastern North America in early Tertiary period. The maximum-parsimony tree with only 18 Oriental sweetgum populations indicated that there were two main clusters: one with mainly L.orientalis var. integriloba and the other with var. orientalis and undetermined populations. High nucleotide diversity (0. 0028) and divergence (0. 00072) were found in L.orientalis var. integriloba populations and Muǧla-1 geographical region. This region could be considered as the major refugium and genetic diversity center for the species. The low genetic diversity and divergence at intraspecies level suggest that L.orientalis populations in Turkey share an ancestral polymorphism from which two varieties may have evolved. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


Cengel B.,Forest Tree Seeds and Tree Breeding Research Directorate | Cengel B.,Middle East Technical University | Tayanc Y.,Forest Tree Seeds and Tree Breeding Research Directorate | Kandemir G.,Forest Tree Seeds and Tree Breeding Research Directorate | And 3 more authors.
New Forests | Year: 2012

To test how efficiently plantations and seed orchards captured genetic diversity from natural Anatolian black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold subspecies pallasiana Holmboe) seed stands, seed sources were chosen from 3 different categories (seed stands (SS), seed orchards (SO) and plantations (P)) comprising 4 different breeding zones of the species in Turkey. Twenty-five trees (mother trees) were selected from each SS, SO and P seed sources and were screened with 11 Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Estimated genetic diversity parameters were found to be generally high in all Anatolian black pine seed sources and the majority of genetic diversity is contained within seed sources (94%). No significant difference in genetic diversity parameters (numbers of effective alleles, % of polymorphic loci and heterozygosity) among seed source categories was found, except for a slight increase in observed heterozygosities in seed orchards. For all seed source categories, observed heterozygosity values were higher (H o = 0.49 for SS, 0.55 for SO and 0.49 for P) than expected ones (H e = 0.40 for SS, 0.39 for SO and 0.38 for P) indicating the excess of heterozygotes. In general, genetic diversity in seed stands has been transferred successfully into seed orchards and plantations. However, the use of seeds from seed orchards can increase the amount of genetic diversity in plantations further. The study also demonstrated that number of plus-tree clones (25-38) used in the establishment of seed orchards was adequate to capture the high level of diversity from natural stands. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

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