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Bolzano, Italy

Desai A.R.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Desai A.R.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Wohlfahrt G.,University of Innsbruck | Wohlfahrt G.,European Academy of Bolzano | And 10 more authors.
Environmental Research Letters | Year: 2016

Regional ecosystem productivity is highly sensitive to inter-annual climate variability, both within and outside the primary carbon uptake period. However, Earth system models lack sufficient spatial scales and ecosystem processes to resolve how these processes may change in a warming climate. Here, we show, how for the European Alps, mid-latitude Atlantic ocean winter circulation anomalies drive high-altitude summer forest and grassland productivity, through feedbacks among orographic wind circulation patterns, snowfall, winter and spring temperatures, and vegetation activity. Therefore, to understand future global climate change influence to regional ecosystem productivity, Earth systems models need to focus on improvements towards topographic downscaling of changes in regional atmospheric circulation patterns and to lagged responses in vegetation dynamics to non-growing season climate anomalies. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Parazoo N.C.,Jet Propulsion Laboratory | Parazoo N.C.,University of California at Los Angeles | Bowman K.,Jet Propulsion Laboratory | Bowman K.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 9 more authors.
Global Change Biology | Year: 2014

Determining the spatial and temporal distribution of terrestrial gross primary production (GPP) is a critical step in closing the Earth's carbon budget. Dynamical global vegetation models (DGVMs) provide mechanistic insight into GPP variability but diverge in predicting the response to climate in poorly investigated regions. Recent advances in the remote sensing of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) opens up a new possibility to provide direct global observational constraints for GPP. Here, we apply an optimal estimation approach to infer the global distribution of GPP from an ensemble of eight DGVMs constrained by global measurements of SIF from the Greenhouse Gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT). These estimates are compared to flux tower data in N. America, Europe, and tropical S. America, with careful consideration of scale differences between models, GOSAT, and flux towers. Assimilation of GOSAT SIF with DGVMs causes a redistribution of global productivity from northern latitudes to the tropics of 7-8 Pg C yr-1 from 2010 to 2012, with reduced GPP in northern forests (~3.6 Pg C yr-1) and enhanced GPP in tropical forests (~3.7 Pg C yr-1). This leads to improvements in the structure of the seasonal cycle, including earlier dry season GPP loss and enhanced peak-to-trough GPP in tropical forests within the Amazon Basin and reduced growing season length in northern croplands and deciduous forests. Uncertainty in predicted GPP (estimated from the spread of DGVMs) is reduced by 40-70% during peak productivity suggesting the assimilation of GOSAT SIF with models is well-suited for benchmarking. We conclude that satellite fluorescence augurs a new opportunity to quantify the GPP response to climate drivers and the potential to constrain predictions of carbon cycle evolution. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Collalti A.,Euro Mediterranean Center on Climate Change | Collalti A.,University of Tuscia | Marconi S.,Euro Mediterranean Center on Climate Change | Marconi S.,University of Tuscia | And 17 more authors.
Geoscientific Model Development | Year: 2016

This study evaluates the performances of the new version (v.5.1) of 3D-CMCC Forest Ecosystem Model (FEM) in simulating gross primary productivity (GPP), against eddy covariance GPP data for 10 FLUXNET forest sites across Europe. A new carbon allocation module, coupled with new both phenological and autotrophic respiration schemes, was implemented in this new daily version. Model ability in reproducing timing and magnitude of daily and monthly GPP fluctuations is validated at intra-annual and inter-annual scale, including extreme anomalous seasons. With the purpose to test the 3D-CMCC FEM applicability over Europe without a site-related calibration, the model has been deliberately parametrized with a single set of species-specific parametrizations for each forest ecosystem. The model consistently reproduces both in timing and in magnitude daily and monthly GPP variability across all sites, with the exception of the two Mediterranean sites. We find that 3D-CMCC FEM tends to better simulate the timing of inter-annual anomalies than their magnitude within measurements' uncertainty. In six of eight sites where data are available, the model well reproduces the 2003 summer drought event. Finally, for three sites we evaluate whether a more accurate representation of forest structural characteristics (i.e. cohorts, forest layers) and species composition can improve model results. In two of the three sites results reveal that model slightly increases its performances although, statistically speaking, not in a relevant way. © Author(s) 2016.

Yuan W.,Beijing Normal University | Yuan W.,CAS Lanzhou Cold and Arid Regions Environmental and Engineering Research Institute | Cai W.,Beijing Normal University | Xia J.,Beijing Normal University | And 28 more authors.
Agricultural and Forest Meteorology | Year: 2014

Simulating gross primary productivity (GPP) of terrestrial ecosystems has been a major challenge in quantifying the global carbon cycle. Many different light use efficiency (LUE) models have been developed recently, but our understanding of the relative merits of different models remains limited. Using CO2 flux measurements from multiple eddy covariance sites, we here compared and assessed major algorithms and performance of seven LUE models (CASA, CFix, CFlux, EC-LUE, MODIS, VPM and VPRM). Comparison between simulated GPP and estimated GPP from flux measurements showed that model performance differed substantially among ecosystem types. In general, most models performed better in capturing the temporal changes and magnitude of GPP in deciduous broadleaf forests and mixed forests than in evergreen broadleaf forests and shrublands. Six of the seven LUE models significantly underestimated GPP during cloudy days because the impacts of diffuse radiation on light use efficiency were ignored in the models. CFlux and EC-LUE exhibited the lowest root mean square error among all models at 80% and 75% of the sites, respectively. Moreover, these two models showed better performance than others in simulating interannual variability of GPP. Two pairwise comparisons revealed that the seven models differed substantially in algorithms describing the environmental regulations, particularly water stress, on GPP. This analysis highlights the need to improve representation of the impacts of diffuse radiation and water stress in the LUE models. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Chevallier F.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Wang T.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Ciais P.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | Maignan F.,CEA Saclay Nuclear Research Center | And 12 more authors.
Global Biogeochemical Cycles | Year: 2012

To guide the future development of CO2-atmospheric inversion modeling systems, we analyzed the errors arising from prior information about terrestrial ecosystem fluxes. We compared the surface fluxes calculated by a process-based terrestrial ecosystem model with daily averages of CO2 flux measurements at 156 sites across the world in the FLUXNET network. At the daily scale, the standard deviation of the model-data fit was 2.5 gCm -2d-1; temporal autocorrelations were significant at the weekly scale (>0.3 for lags less than four weeks), while spatial correlations were confined to within the first few hundred kilometers (<0.2 after 200km). Separating out the plant functional types did not increase the spatial correlations, except for the deciduous broad-leaved forests. Using the statistics of the flux measurements as a proxy for the statistics of the prior flux errors was shown not to be a viable approach. A statistical model allowed us to upscale the site-level flux error statistics to the coarser spatial and temporal resolutions used in regional or global models. This approach allowed us to quantify how aggregation reduces error variances, while increasing correlations. As an example, for a typical inversion of grid point (300km × 300km) monthly fluxes, we found that the prior flux error follows an approximate e-folding correlation length of 500km only, with correlations from one month to the next as large as 0.6. © 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

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