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Peters D.M.,Albert Ludwigs University of Freiburg | Schraml U.,Forest Research Institute Baden Wuerttemberg
Sustainability (Switzerland)

Interpretations of the concept of sustainability vary substantially in relation to forests and their management, and they are usually present in conflicts about forest use. In this article, we consider underlying interests relating to conflicts of forest use as a given. Our aim is therefore not to reveal those interests, but rather to explore understandings of sustainability hiding behind them-sustainability frames. To this end, we use frame theory to investigate the following research question: How are different sustainability frames of interest groups reflected in a forest use conflict situation in Germany? The energy wood conflict serves as the example for our research, as it is currently the most prominent forest management conflict in Germany. Using 12 stakeholder interviews within three interest groups as the empirical data basis, it becomes clear that sustainability understandings reflect particular positionings in conflicts, or vice versa. In the energy wood conflict, the classic dichotomy between forestry and conservation groups becomes a trichotomy in which the forestry group splits into an interest group that profits from energy wood production and one that competes with it. We suggest that sustainability understandings do not represent worldviews that guide how actors understand conflicts, but rather that they are shaped according to actors' particular interests in conflicts. © 2015 by the authors. Source

Hartmann P.,University of Kiel | Hartmann P.,Forest Research Institute Baden Wuerttemberg | Zink A.,University of Kiel | Fleige H.,University of Kiel | Horn R.,University of Kiel
Soil and Tillage Research

In this study we determined wheeling (external loads of 6.3. Mg by 10 times wheeling) and tillage effects (conventional and conservation tillage) on the soil hydraulic properties of Stagnic Luvisols in Northwest Germany and modeled the soil water balance's reaction on both loading and changing climatic conditions. Due to the mechanical stress applied by loading, physical properties changed distinctly in the top Ap-horizons and the subsequent Eg-horizons at both tillage systems. Especially pore size distributions and soil hydraulic conductivities were affected. The Btg horizons did not show changes due to loading. Soil water balance was measured with soil tensiometers during one growing period and the following autumn and was modeled with Hydrus 1D for loaded and unloaded conditions under winter wheat for three different periods (1991-2000; 2051-2060; 2091-2100) based on a regional A1B climate scenario. At the loaded sites we found an increase of actual transpiration rates in the growing period. As a consequence of stronger drying and changed hydraulic properties, rewetting in autumn and winter was retarded and less complete on average. Furthermore, simulations indicated an increase of the variability of matric potentials. Consequently, compaction might result in a higher drought risk and a higher susceptibility for water logging in spring, which may result in less favorable soil conditions and plant growth. Reactions of soil water balance on changing climatic conditions were comparable for all loading variants and tillage systems. Predicted changes in precipitation (in general: summer -, winter +) and temperature (+) would result in a reduction of transpiration rates in the growing period while the climatic water balance in autumn and winter would increase distinctly. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Sucker C.,Forest Research Institute Baden Wuerttemberg | Krause K.,Swiss Federal Institute of forest

Since the beginning of the 1990s, an increase in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) has been observed in rivers and lakes in various parts of Europe and North America. The processes responsible for the increased DOC concentrations are complex and not entirely understood. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the recent debate about increases in the DOC concentrations in surface water and their possible drivers. © iForest-Biogeosciences and Forestry. Source

Ash dieback is currently one of the most important tree diseases in Germany. A countrywide distribution is already assumed. Trees of all ages on various site types are affected in forests and the landscape, as well as in nurseries and urban plantings. Initially economic losses were most severe in Northern Germany, but damage has increased in all regions. In several parts of Germany, surveys have been started during the past few years. In North-East Germany, where the disease was first observed, conditions on various sites were compared to identify the characteristics which influence the disease occurrence and severity. In addition, laboratory investigations were carried out with a large number of coeval ash saplings to study the infection rate, invasion and spread strategy of the causal agent inside plant tissues, as well as the role of soil-borne Oomycetes as possible primary or accompanying organisms in the disease process. The experiments presented here show that the fungus is able to spread very effectively in wood as a parasite and does not originate from the root system. The results confirm the dominant role of Chalarafraxinea and rule out the importance of pathogenic Oomycetes. © 2011 The Author. Journal compilation © 2011 OEPP/EPPO. Source

Metzler B.,Forest Research Institute Baden Wuerttemberg | Hecht U.,Forest Research Institute Baden Wuerttemberg | Nill M.,Forest Research Institute Baden Wuerttemberg | Bruchert F.,Forest Research Institute Baden Wuerttemberg | And 2 more authors.
Forest Ecology and Management

In order to compare Norway spruce (. Picea abies) and silver fir (. Abies alba) with respect to susceptibility to wound colonizing fungi, wood stains and rots, experimental cortical lesions were created in situ on mature trees. The study was performed with 40 Norway spruce and 39 silver fir. Two years after the infliction of the lesions the experiment was evaluated with respect to fungal colonization. The most common fungi isolated from xylem beneath the wound area of Norway spruce were Neonectria fuckeliana, Stereum sanguinolentum and Leptodontium beauverioides. Overall, fungal wound infection rate of Norway spruce was 4.6-fold higher compared to silver fir. Only 7% of the Norway spruce stems were sterile in opposite to 67% sterile silver fir trees. Wood decay fungi were isolated from 28% of Norway spruce trees compared to only 8% of silver fir. Accordingly, discolorations in the wood of Norway spruce were clearly larger in their extent. Silver fir mostly displayed only superficial discoloration. On the other hand, the impact on xylem of both tree species was only slightly influenced by the season of wounding (May versus October). Histological examination revealed that in Norway spruce fungal infections occurred through regular resin channels which appeared to be easily colonized by fungi facilitating long distance growth of fungal hyphae. In contrast, traumatic resin ducts formed by both tree species were not found to be infected by fungi. Very obviously, silver fir - being void of primary resin channels - was able to seal injuries by deposition of accessory substances close to the surface of the exposed xylem, thus inhibiting sapwood dehydration and impeding xylem colonization by fungi. For Norway spruce, computer tomography strongly indicated specific sapwood desiccation in the wound region, while in silver fir no such desiccation could be found. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.. Source

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