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Susilowati A.,University of Indonesia | Hartini K.S.,University of Indonesia | Rachmat H.H.,Forest Research and Development Agency | Alvaroby M.,University of Indonesia
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2017

Kemenyan known as Sumatran benzoin is North Sumatera local species that produce high valuable rosin and prospective export comodities. However, sustainability of Sumatran benzoin production has many constraints such as instability of resin production, lack information of propagation technique and traditional management system. Until now, comprehensive information for Sumatran benzoin propagation system still not determined yet. The objectives of this research were (1) to get information about propagation technique of Sumatran benzoin and its suitable growing medium and 2) to get information on adventitious root formation in Sumatran benzoin cuttings. Cutting materials (Toba benzoin and Durame benzoin) were originated from 1 year old seedling propagated by seed. Media used were combination of sand : rice husk (1:0 v/v; 1/1 v/v). Results showed that interaction between media and benzoin species significantly affected primer and secondary root lenght. While planting medium significantly improved secondary root length and number. Benzoin species significantly affected primary and secondary root lenght, and secondary root number. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.


Tata H.L.,Forest Research and Development Agency | Tata H.L.,World Agroforestry Center Southeast Asia Regional Office | van Noordwijk M.,World Agroforestry Center Southeast Asia Regional Office | Jasnari,World Agroforestry Center Southeast Asia Regional Office | Widayati A.,World Agroforestry Center Southeast Asia Regional Office
Agroforestry Systems | Year: 2015

As part of a broader pattern of recovery after decline called forest transition, tree cover and carbon stocks have increased through agroforestry systems in many parts of Indonesia. The associated tree diversity transition implies that only the most useful parts of local tree flora are promoted. Swampland jelutong, Dyera polyphylla, has been domesticated in peat areas Jambi province, Indonesia. We discuss jelutong domestication in two coastal districts, referring to seven steps in a gradual change from products collected from communal natural forests to specific genotypes managed on private farms. Domestication of D. polyphylla in Jambi was in the initial stages three decades ago, when jelutong latex was directly tapped from the trees in its natural habitat of peat swamp forests. Tapping jelutong latex stopped in 2005 following the national regulation taxing forest products. Some farmers then started jelutong cultivation, motivated by the profitability of trading jelutong latex in the past. Our on-farm study showed that jelutong can be planted in various mixed agroforestry systems, with rubber, coffee or oil palm as dominants. Planted jelutong with good farm management showed diameter growth rates of 1.3 to 1.9 cm year−1. On-farm trials showed that dolomite as soil ameliorant did not affect diameter growth, but had some effect on height. Jelutong planted between young oil palm had the best performance, while jelutong that was underplanted in mature rubber gardens grew slowly. Slow market revival currently constrains further tree domestication of jelutong. © 2015 The Author(s)


Karlinasari L.,Bogor Agricultural University | Indahsuary N.,Bogor Agricultural University | Kusumo H.T.,Bogor Agricultural University | Santoso E.,Forest Research and Development Agency | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Tropical Forest Science | Year: 2015

Agarwood or gaharu is a valuable non-timber forest product that has unique aroma and is widely used in many cultures and industries. It develops as a result of fungal infection, injury and non-pathological processes in several genera of trees from the family Thymelaeaceae, including Aquilaria. The presence of agarwood can be determined using non-destructive sound waves to evaluate the internal condition of A. microcarpa trees. The aim of this study was to compare the velocity of sound between 'stress' or sonic waves and ultrasonic waves travelling through the trunk of standing A. microcarpa trees inoculated with Fusarium solani. The ultrasonic wave velocities (Vusn) were found to be 29.5% higher than sonic wave velocities (Vsn). Statistical analysis showed no significant difference in velocity in relation to height of measured tree section. Vsn and Vusn values were found to be approximately 700 and 900 m s-1 respectively for trees that contained agarwood. Non-destructive sound wave testing is, therefore, a feasible method to detect the presence of agarwood. © Forest Research Institute Malaysia.


Hidayat A.,Ehime University | Hidayat A.,Forest Research and Development Agency | Tachibana S.,Ehime University
Journal of Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2012

The biodegradation of hydrocarbons in crude oil under saline stress needs to be investigated because degradation was generally lack or slow, whereas crude oil or petroleum hydrocarbons are major pollutants of marine environments. A natural isolate, Fusarium sp. F092, having the ability to degrade chrysene was used to degrade the aliphatic fraction in crude oil contaminating a liquid culture with artificial sea water (35‰). Three types of crude oil were used to perform these experiments. F092 showed the best performance to break down the aliphatic fraction in crude oil type-3 (98%) and type-2 (72%) and type-1 (49%) after 60 days with an initial concentration of 1000 mg L -1. Furthermore, almost all the aliphatic compounds (Up to C 31) in the crude oil were degraded by F092 which preferred short and long chain hydrocarbons. Incubation with 15000 mg L -1 degraded less than 40% of the aliphatic fraction of all crude oils tested. The outstanding ability of Fusarium sp. F092 to adapt to artificial sea water and degrade the aliphatic fraction of all crude oils at high concentrations offers an alternative for bioremediation of crude oil- polluted marine environments. © 2012 Asian Network for Scientific Information.


Sukito A.,Ehime University | Sukito A.,Forest Research and Development Agency | Tachibana S.,Ehime University
Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences | Year: 2014

Two antioxidant active compounds were isolated from the methanol extract of Camellia sasanqua using various in vitro assays: 1,1-dipheny 1-2-piciylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene bleaching and reducing power assays. The ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of the methanol extract had the highest DPPH radical-scavenging activity with an Inhibition Concentration (IC50) value of 18.3±1.63 μg mL-1. Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography was used to separate the EtOAc fraction into eight fractions (F1-F8). Antioxidant activity was significantly higher in fraction 5 with an IC50 value 14.61±0.02 μg mL-1. Fraction 5 was further separated by HPLC preparative with Capcellpak C18 MG followed by the Cosmosil 5C18-AR-II column, using a guided DPPH radical-scavenging assay. The compounds isolated were identified as: Hyperoside (1) and isoquercitrin (2) after recrystallization from ethanol, based on Mass Spectrum (MS) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) analyses. Their DPPH radical-scavenging activities based on the 50% scavenging concentration decreased in the following order: Isoquercitrin (21.6 mM)>hyperoside (27.5 mM). The antioxidant activities of hyperoside and isoquercitrin were 67.52±0.64 and 64.33±0.51%, respectively, in the β-carotene bleaching assay. These compounds were found to have good reducing powers (OD value: 2.5-3.8) at concentrations of 50-140 μg mL-1, using the potassium ferricyanide reduction method. Although, these compounds are well-known, hyperoside (1) was isolated from this herb for the first time. © 2014 Asian Network for Scientific Information.


van Noordwijk M.,World Agroforestry Center | Bizard V.,World Agroforestry Center | Bizard V.,University of Kent | Wangpakapattanawong P.,Chiang Mai University | And 3 more authors.
Global Food Security | Year: 2014

Trees are sources of food, especially fruits, critical for healthy diets. Trees also modify microclimate, water and nutrient flows for crops and livestock, and are a source of income, allowing forest-edge communities to be food-sufficient through trade without cutting down forests. Opportunities for ecological intensification, utilizing trees in agricultural landscapes, vary along stages of a tree cover transition of forest alteration and deforestation followed by agroforestation. The nonlinear forest transition curve can provide both a theory of change (similarity of processes) and a theory of place (configuration of state variables). We reviewed local perspectives on food security for four configurations of the forest and landscape transition in Southeast Asia, with local human population densities ranging from less than 10 to 900km-2 to explore how current generic 'theories of change' on how to achieve global food security need more explicit 'theories of place' that take such differences into account. © 2014 The Authors.


Rahman A.,Hokkaido University | Sitepu I.R.,Forest Research and Development Agency | Tang S.-Y.,Hokkaido University | Hashidoko Y.,Hokkaido University
Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry | Year: 2010

Rhizobacteria isolated from wild dipterocarp saplings in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, were subjected to Salkowski's reagent test, which is often used in detecting indolic substances. Among 69 isolates grown in a low-nitrogen medium supplemented with L-tryptophan (TRP), culture fluids of 29 strains were positive to the test, in which 17 bacteria turned red and other 10 pink. All the red type rhizobacteria actively converted TRP into tryptophol (TOL), while some yielded indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) with TOL production. They also showed a capacity to decompose gallotannin into pyro-gallol via gallic acid. On the other hand, an active IAA-producing Serratia sp. CK67, and three Fe-solubilizing Burkholderia spp. CK28, CK43, and Citrobacter sp. CK42, were all involved in pink type rhizobacteria, which were more effective, oxidative TRP-degraders than the red type rhizobacteria. Thus, Salkowski's reagent test should be a useful primary index in the screening of functional rhizobacteria in peatland ecosystem.


Tata H.L.,Forest Research and Development Agency | Tata H.L.,World Agroforestry Center Southeast Asia Regional Office | van Noordwijk M.,World Agroforestry Center Southeast Asia Regional Office | Widayati A.,World Agroforestry Center Southeast Asia Regional Office
Agroforestry Systems | Year: 2015

As part of a broader pattern of recovery after decline called forest transition, tree cover and carbon stocks have increased through agroforestry systems in many parts of Indonesia. The associated tree diversity transition implies that only the most useful parts of local tree flora are promoted. Swampland jelutong, Dyera polyphylla, has been domesticated in peat areas Jambi province, Indonesia. We discuss jelutong domestication in two coastal districts, referring to seven steps in a gradual change from products collected from communal natural forests to specific genotypes managed on private farms. Domestication of D. polyphylla in Jambi was in the initial stages three decades ago, when jelutong latex was directly tapped from the trees in its natural habitat of peat swamp forests. Tapping jelutong latex stopped in 2005 following the national regulation taxing forest products. Some farmers then started jelutong cultivation, motivated by the profitability of trading jelutong latex in the past. Our on-farm study showed that jelutong can be planted in various mixed agroforestry systems, with rubber, coffee or oil palm as dominants. Planted jelutong with good farm management showed diameter growth rates of 1.3 to 1.9 cm year−1. On-farm trials showed that dolomite as soil ameliorant did not affect diameter growth, but had some effect on height. Jelutong planted between young oil palm had the best performance, while jelutong that was underplanted in mature rubber gardens grew slowly. Slow market revival currently constrains further tree domestication of jelutong. © 2015 The Author(s)


Kim D.,Hokkaido University | Rahman A.,Hokkaido University | Sitepu I.R.,Forest Research and Development Agency | Hashidoko Y.,Hokkaido University
Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry | Year: 2013

In modified Winogradsky's (MW) medium supplemented with excessive indole (1), Burkholderia unamae strain CK43B isolated from polyphenol-rich Shorea rhizosphere showed almost no cell growth, but it showed drastic cell growth given further supplementation of gallic acid, a simple plant polyphenol. This active cell growth of B. unamae CK43B was due to the stimulating effect of gallic acid on 1-degradation of bacterial cells, which acquired a nitrogen source in 1. Under aerobic culture conditions with appropriate concentrations (0.5- 2.0mM) of gallic acid, B. unamae CK43B started to decompose exogenous 1 in a dose-dependent manner, and finally accumulated catechol (5) via anthranilic acid (4). Pyrogallol also showed a cometabolic effect on decarboxylation-coupled oxidative deamination of B. unamae CK43B, producing 5 from 4, as gallic acid did. These results suggest that pyrogallol-type plant polyphenols act as stimulators on B. unamae CK43B, causing it to degrade an N-heterocyclic aromatic compound (NHAC) including nitrogen-containing humic substances.


Kim D.,Hokkaido University | Sitepu I.R.,Forest Research and Development Agency | Hashidoko Y.,Hokkaido University
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2013

Burkholderia unamae CK43B, a member of the Betaproteobacteria that was isolated from the rhizosphere of a Shorea balangeran sapling in a tropical peat swamp forest, produces neither indole nor extracellular polymeric substances associated with biofilm formation. When cultured in a modified Winogradsky's medium supplemented with up to 1.7mMindole, B. unamae CK43B maintains its planktonic state by cell swelling and effectively degrades exogenous indole. However, in medium supplemented with 1.7mMexogenous indole and 1.0mMgallic acid, B. unamae CK43B produced extracellular polymeric substances and formed a biofilm. The concentration indicated above of gallic acid alone had no effect on either the growth or the differentiation of B. unamae CK43B cells above a certain concentration threshold, whereas it inhibited indole degradation by B. unamae CK43B to 3-hydroxyindoxyl. In addition, coculture of B. unamae CK43B with indole-producing Escherichia coli in nutrient-rich Luria-Bertani medium supplemented with 1.0mMgallic acid led to the formation of mixed cell aggregates. The viability and active growth of B. unamae CK43B cells in a coculture system with Escherichia coli were evidenced by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Our data thus suggest that indole facilitates intergenus communication between indole-producing gammaproteobacteria and some indole-degrading bacteria, particularly in gallic acid-rich environments. © 2013, American Society for Microbiology.

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