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Fraser S.,University of Surrey | Mullett M.S.,Forest Research Alice Holt Lodge Farnham | Woodward S.,University of Aberdeen | Brown A.V.,Forest Research Alice Holt Lodge Farnham
Plant Pathology | Year: 2015

Dothistroma needle blight (DNB), caused by Dothistroma septosporum, is currently the disease causing most concern in British pine plantations. Previous artificial inoculation (AI) experiments showed that native Scottish Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) populations vary in susceptibility to DNB. However, it is unclear if the relative susceptibility of Scots pine populations observed in these experiments can be replicated under natural conditions. It is also unknown whether relative susceptibility of Scots pine populations varies between sites or years. To answer these two questions, young Scots pine plants from six native Scottish populations (Abernethy, Allt Broighleachan, Amat, Beinn Eighe, Glen Cannich and Glen Loyne) were exposed to natural D. septosporum inoculum at two Scottish sites (Culbin and Torrs Warren) between 2012 and 2014. DNB disease incidence and severity was assessed each October. Relative susceptibilities of the Scots pine populations varied between sites and across years. In two of the three years at Torrs Warren (2012 and 2014), the relative susceptibilities of the populations were strongly positively correlated with those observed in previous AI experiments. In these years, trees from Glen Loyne and Glen Cannich were the most susceptible. Conversely, there was no correlation between the relative susceptibilities seen in any year at Culbin with those observed in AI experiments. At Culbin, Beinn Eighe was the most susceptible population. Across both sites, there was a strong positive relationship between total summer precipitation and DNB severity (R = 0·93, t = 8·2, P = 0·001). © 2015 British Society for Plant Pathology.


Straw N.A.,Forest Research Alice Holt Lodge Farnham | Tilbury C.,Forest Research Alice Holt Lodge Farnham | Fielding N.J.,Forest Research Whitcliffe Ludlow | Williams D.T.,Forest Research Alice Holt Lodge Farnham | Cull T.,Forest Research Alice Holt Lodge Farnham
Agricultural and Forest Entomology | Year: 2015

In March 2012, an outbreak of Asian longhorn beetle Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), a quarantine pest that is highly damaging to broadleaved trees, was discovered at Paddock Wood in southern England. Infested trees were felled as part of an eradication programme, but material that contained A. glabripennis life stages was retained and analyzed to provide information on the timing and length of the life cycle, as an aid to future management and surveillance. A total of 366 A. glabripennis larvae were recovered, including 69 first- and second-instar larvae found in June and July before any adults were found in the samples or had emerged, which indicated that the majority of eggs were laid in the previous autumn and over-wintered before hatching. Tree ring analysis and predictions of the timing of adult emergence based on degree-day accumulation also indicated that adults emerged late in the season, from August onwards, when lower temperatures would have caused most eggs to delay hatching until the next year. Two cohorts of older, established larvae were present in the samples, corresponding to larvae that had over-wintered once and twice, respectively. Thus, most larvae required two seasons to complete their development after hatching and a total of 3 years to complete the full life cycle from egg to adult. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.


Straw N.A.,Forest Research Alice Holt Lodge Farnham | Fielding N.J.,Forest Research Whitcliffe Ludlow | Tilbury C.,Forest Research Alice Holt Lodge Farnham | Williams D.T.,Forest Research Alice Holt Lodge Farnham | Cull T.,Forest Research Alice Holt Lodge Farnham
Agricultural and Forest Entomology | Year: 2016

Asian longhorn beetle Anoplophora glabripennis is a major international quarantine pest that is capable of killing a wide range of broadleaved trees. In 2012, an outbreak of A. glabripennis was discovered at Paddock Wood in southern England, which prompted an eradication programme and research to determine when the population had established, as well as how quickly it was spreading. Tree ring analysis of infested stems and branches showed that the first A. glabripennis adult emerged in 2003 and that the beetle had been present for approximately 10years before it was discovered. However, the population had increased relatively slowly and, even though it could be shown that some beetles travelled 96-203m to lay eggs in new trees, the population as a whole had not spread further than 234m. Survival rates of larvae were similar to rates observed in other A. glabripennis populations, although failure at the egg-laying stage and adult mortality at or before emergence were higher than recorded elsewhere. A combination of factors appears to have allowed A. glabripennis to establish at Paddock Wood: the presence of a highly susceptible host (sycamore), multiple introductions of adult beetles over several years, and a run of warmer than average summers at the time of the initial colonization. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

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